Impact of Integrated Soil and Water Conservation Program on Crop Production and Income in West Harerghe Zone, Ethiopia
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages: 111-120
Received: Jul. 9, 2013;
Published: Aug. 20, 2013
Views 3894 Downloads 498
Yenealem Kassa, Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Fekadu Beyene, Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Jema Haji, Department of Agricultural Economics, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Belaineh Legesse, Department of Agricultural Economics, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Land degradation has been identified as one of the most serious problems that threaten the sustainability of agriculture in Ethiopia. In an effort to address these problems, the basic paradigm and approach to soil and water conservation has itself evolved over time. In recent years more holistic and land-scape wide approaches that go beyond resource conservation towards improved land husbandry and water management for beneﬁcial conservation have been promoted using a national guideline known as Community Based Participatory Watershed Development, where its impact is yet to be seen. In this respect, after having worked for many years on the core part of land management practices, some projects realized the need for value adding and natural resources management (NRM)-based income generation at household level. Hence, the major concern of this study was to evaluate the impact of those integrated land management interventions on crop production value per hectare and annual gross income of smallholder farm households in West Harerghe Zone of Oromia National Regional State. To meet this objective a total of 398 sample households, consisting 183 soil and water conservation program and 215 non-program participants, were randomly selected from nine program and nine counterfactual kebeles in three districts (DaroLabu, Messela and Oda Bultum). Descriptive statistics with appropriate statistical tests and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to meet the stated objective. Results of the descriptive statistics showed that before matching there was difference between program and non-program households in terms of sex, education, farming experience, land holding and livestock ownership. Estimates of propensity score matching (PSM) indicate the existence of a positive additional significant crop production value premium of birr 1,510.42 (US$ 80.55) per hectare and annual gross income of birr 4,288.29 (US$ 228.7) for program groups compared to non-program groups. This indicates that on average participant households earned 8.3 percent more crop production value per hectare and 21.2 percent more gross household income than their matches. The independent analysis result of the data also revealed that the value of crop production was fairly higher on moisture stress program kebeles (1,771.35 EB/hectare) than in the high rainfall areas of the program (1,439.28 EB/hectare). Therefore, in agriculture dependent country like Ethiopia, soil and water conservation is crucial in improving the livelihoods of the rural farm households. However, to realize the intended outcomes, agro-ecology specific technologies that are linked with natural resource management based income generating activities should be promoted.
Impact of Integrated Soil and Water Conservation Program on Crop Production and Income in West Harerghe Zone, Ethiopia, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2013, pp. 111-120.
Nanpham T., D. Yang, S. Kanae, T. OKI , and K. Musiakt, 2001. Application of RUSLE Medel on Global Soil Erosion Estimate. Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE, Vol.45.
Kertesz A., 2009. The Global Problem of Land Degradation and Desertification. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, (1): 19-31.
GEF (Global Environmental Facility), 2010. Land Degradation Strategy.
Angima, S. D., Stott, D. E., O'Neill, M. K., Ong, C. K., and Weesies, G. A, 2003. Soil erosion Prediction Using RUSLE for Central Kenya Highland Conditions. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, 21: 295-308.
Graaff de. J., C.J. Ritsema and L. Stroosnijder, 2009. Land Degradation and Development Group. Wagningen University, Environmental Service Group.
Bruutrup M., and R. Zimmermann, 2009. Agriculture as the Potential Engine for African Growth and the Role of NEPAD. CESifo Forum. 29p.
Berry, L., J. Olson and D. Campbell, 2003. Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies. Commissioned by Global Mechanism with Support from the World Bank. 68p.
Tekalign M., 2008. Opening Address to the 9th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Soil Science April 17 2008.
Gete Z., 2000. Landscape Dynamics and Soil Erosion Process Modeling in the Northwestern Ethiopian Highlands. African Studies Series A16. University of Berne Switzerland. Geographica Bernensia.
FAO/WFP (Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Food Program), 2005. Report on the Cost-benefit Analysis and Impact Evaluation of Soil and Water Conservation and Forestry Measures in MERET Project. WFP, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Unpublished).176p.
EfD (Environment for Development), 2010. Green Accounting Puts Price on Ethiopian Soil Erosion and Deforestation:http//:www.efdinitiative.org/centers/Ethiopia/the enviroment-for development-imitative: Cited on June 2010
Gete Z., Menale K., John Pender and Mahmud Y., 2006. Stakeholder Analysis for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in Ethiopia: Assessment of Opportunities, Strategic Constraints, Information Needs, and Knowledge Gaps. Environmental Economics Policy Forum. 97p.
Minale K., 2005. Technology Adoption, Land Rental Contacts, and Agricultural Productivity. PhD Dissertation, Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
Barrett, C. B., J. Lynam, F. Place, T. Reardon, and A.A. Aboud, 2002. Towards Improved Natural Resource Management in African Agriculture. Natural Resource Management in African Agriculture. Undersigning and Improving Current Practices. CAB Publishing: 287-296.
Berhanu G., Gebremedhin W., Yigzaw D., Tilahun G. and Worku T., 2009. Sustainable Land Management through Market-oriented Commodity Development: Case Studies from Ethiopia. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Working Paper 21, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 46p.
Lakew D., V. Carucci, Asrat Wondemagegnehu and Ytayew Abebe, 2005. Community Based Participatory Watershed Development. Ministry of Agriculture and Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Mitiku H., K. Harweg and B. Stillhardt, 2006. Sustainable Land Management: A New Approach to Soil and Water Conservation in Ethiopia. 305p
Bekele S., J. Okello, and V.R. Ratna, 2009. Adoption and Adaptation of Natural Resource Management Innovations in Smallholder Agriculture: Reﬂections on Key Lessons and Best Practices. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11: 601-619.
Reddy, V. R., 2005. Costs of Resource Depletion Externalities: A Study of Groundwater Overexploitation in Andhra Pradesh, India. Environment and Development Economics, 10: 533-556.
Kerr, J., G. Milne, V. Chhotray, P. Baumann and A.J. James, 2007. Managing Watershed Externalities in India. Theory and Practice. Environment, Development and Sustainability, (9): 263-268.
WHZBOFED (West Harerghe Zone Finance and Economic Development Office), 2007. Unpublished Annual Report.
PEDBRSO (Planning and Economic Development Bureau of the Regional State of Oromia), 2010. Zonal Atlas of West Harerghe Zone. 112p.
Caliendo, M. and S. Kopeinig, 2008. Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching, Discussion Paper No. 1588, University of Cologne.
Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2007. Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-Experimental Causal Studies.
Rosembaum, P.R. and D.B. Rubin, 1983. The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects, Biometrika, 70 (1): 41-55.
Bryson, A., R. Dorsett, and S. Purdon, 2002. The Use of Propensity Score Matching in the Evaluation of Labour Market Policies, Working Paper No. 4, Department for Work and Pensions.
Jalan, J. and M. Ravallion, 2003. Estimating the Benefit Incidence of an Antipoverty Program by Propensity-Score Matching. Journal of Business and Economics Statistics,: 19-30.
Heckman, J., Hidehiko, and T. Petra, 1998. Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Program. Review of Economic Studies, 64 (4): 605-654.