Marine Biofouling Potential on Reverse Osmosis Desalination Membrane and Other Substrata Corresponding to in situ Microbial and Physicochemical Characterization of Seawater
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, October 2015, Pages: 38-50
Received: Sep. 18, 2015; Accepted: Sep. 20, 2015; Published: Nov. 30, 2015
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Khaled Mahmoud Abdelsalam, Marine Biota Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Dalia El Sayed Abd El-Khalek, Marine Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Hassan A. H. Ibrahim, Microbiology Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Sahar Hassan Ibrahem, Environmental Studies Devision, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria, Egypt
Ahmed Morsi Attia, Environmental Studies Devision, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria, Egypt
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In situ investigation was designed for following up the biofouling community formed on the different substrata representative of the desalination unit components including Teflon, Glass, Stainless steel and Reverse Osmosis desalination membrane (RO desalination membrane), submerged in the seawater of the Eastern Harbor, Alexandria, Egypt. The area of study was physico-chemically and microbially characterized along 84 days, the time of the experiment. Some physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) were estimated. For in situ microbial characterization of seawater, the total heterotrophic bacteria and total marine fungi, in addition to several bacterial groups were counted. Data indicated that the total count of heterotrophic bacteria increased linearly with time until it reached the peak after 42 days of submerging coupons (4x106 CFU/ml), then it decreased with the time until the end of submerging trail. The count of common pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus sp., Vibrio sp. And Aeromonas sp. was in same trend but the counts of Staphylococcus sp. were more than of the others. On the other side, Salmonella/Shigella group was not detected in samples at all. The fecal indicator bacteria exhibited moderate counts, while the count of total marine fungi in the seawater samples showed low counts along the period of submerging coupons. Regarding the marine fouling, a total of 36 coupons were examined along 84 days of submerging in the seawater. Throughout the study 21 species of marine macro-fouling were recorded in addition to the very thin layer of blue-green algae. These belonged to different groups as follows: Macroalgae (2 species), Hydriods (1 species), Polychaets (5 species; 3 sedentarian and 2 errantias), Cirripeds (4 species), amphipods (4 species), Taniads (1 species), bryozoan (2 species), and tunicates (2 species). There are clear dominances by two sessile species. These are the polychaete (tube worm); Hydroideselegans and the barnacle; Balanusamphitrite. In average, they constituted about 50% and 29% of total fouling abundance, respectively. Across the different substrates, the average total abundance and biomass of the developing fouling community was comparable during different intervals of immersion except for the glass which showed the lowest values. Responsible factors for these variations are discussed.
Marine Biofouling, Reverse Osmosis Membrane, in situ Characterization
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Khaled Mahmoud Abdelsalam, Dalia El Sayed Abd El-Khalek, Hassan A. H. Ibrahim, Sahar Hassan Ibrahem, Ahmed Morsi Attia, Marine Biofouling Potential on Reverse Osmosis Desalination Membrane and Other Substrata Corresponding to in situ Microbial and Physicochemical Characterization of Seawater, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Special Issue:New Horizons in Environmental Science. Vol. 3, No. 5-1, 2015, pp. 38-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.s.2015030501.16
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