Resource Integration Based Institutional Framework for Sustainable Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination Mitigation and Management
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 10-19
Received: Jan. 23, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 23, 2015;
Published: Mar. 8, 2015
Views 3101 Downloads 131
Islam-ul-Haque , Ecological Sustainability through Environment Protection Services ( Eco-STEPS), Inc, Islamabad- Pakistan
Ground water Arsenic contamination has exponentially endangered the human life and complicated the efforts for obtaining and maintaining drinking water quality standards. The deadly contaminant (Arsenic) has created an alarming and catastrophic crises world over, especially in South Asia e.g., Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Vietnam, China and Myanmar who are facing ground water arsenic contamination problems (Islam, 2005). Every affected country is combating the arsenic contamination menace within the framework of their own socio-economic, legal and cultural perspectives which may not be cost-effective and efficient in time and space matrix. The reason might be of devoid of integration approach amongst the key stakeholders. Hence, under the circumstances, there was a dire need of an integrated approach to combat the arsenic contamination which has virtually emerged as a crises situation, thus necessitating formulation of national action plan for arsenic mitigation. Strategies and objectives within the action plan framework are based on the earlier initiatives of addressing the serious issue of arsenic contamination which includes, establishing integrated institutional arrangements and developing capacity, coordination mechanism amongst all the implementing agencies / stakeholders, like, government(s), NGOs, donor agencies and other related departments & organizations (NAPAM, 2005). The prudent institutional arrangements will make policy decisions and legislation to implement resource integration based arsenic mitigation which includes monitoring and surveillance of water quality/ aquifer mapping / treatment and data base thereof, establishing case diagnosis / treatment of affected arsenicosis patients under health department, developing effective and sustainable behavioral change communication strategies. It will also include community participation / social mobilization and developing cost-effective water treatment technologies and establishment of research related infrastructures. The resource integration based action will converge all the financial, technological and human resources in achieving desired objectives cost-effectively, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Resource Integration Based Institutional Framework for Sustainable Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination Mitigation and Management, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Special Issue: Ground Water Arsenic Contamination and Action Plan for Mitigation.
Vol. 3, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 10-19.
Ahmad, T, Kahlown, M. A, Tahir, A, & Hifza, R. (2004), “Arsenic an Emerging Issue: Experiences from Pakistan”, Paper Presented at 30th WEDC International Conference Vietiane, Lao PDR.
Bhattacharaya, P., Larsson, M., Leiss, A., Jacks, G., Sracek, A., Chatterjee, D., 1998b. Genesis of arseniferous groundwater in the alluvial aquifers of Bengal Delta Plains and strategies for low-cost remediation (abstract). In: Proc. Int. Conf. on As pollution of ground water in Bangladesh: causes, eects and remedies. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Feb. 8-12, 1998.
Islam ul Haque (2005), Ground Water Arsenic Contamination Integrated Approach For Making Arsenic Free Drinking Water National Action Plan For Arsenic Mitigation (NAPAM, 2005-09), Geological Society of America Abstracts with programs Vol 37, No.7 P.454
IPH (2003) Prevalence of Arsenicosis due to Ingestion of Arsenic through Drinking Water: An epidemiological Survey from Seven Districts of Punjab. Institute of Public Health, Government of Punjab (Supported by UNICEF).
Mohammad Hassan Rezaie-Boroon, Chaney J, Bowers B (2014) The Source of Arsenic and Nitrate in Borrego Valley Groundwater Aquifer, Journal of Water Resource and Protection 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.617145, PP. 1589-1602
NAPAM (2005), National Action Plan for Arsenic Mitigation Pakistan, Public by Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan Islamabad.
PCRWR (2003a) Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Southern Punjab. PCRWR, Ministry of S&T, Government of Pakistan (Supported by UNICEF).
PCRWR (2003b) Innovative Low Cost Arsenic Removal Technologies for Developing Countries. PCRWR, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of Pakistan (Supported by UNICEF, Pakistan).
PCRWR (2004) Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Central Sindh. PCRWR, Ministry of S&T, Government of Pakistan (Supported by UNICEF).
PCSIR (2000). Ground Water Studies for Arsenic Contamination in Northern Punjab, Pakistan, Phases I&II, PCSIR, Islamabad (Supported by UNICEF).
SAFWCO (2003) Survey & Testing for Arsenic Mitigation Programme: Khairpur and Dadu Districts. Agricultural & Forestry Workers Coordinating Organization-SAFWCO, Sindh, (Supported by UNICEF).
Smedley P (2005), Arsenic occurrence in groundwater in South and East Asia, Published in: Towards a More Effective Operational Response: Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in South and East Asian Countries. Report No. 31303. Volume II Technical Report The World Bank.
Times of India (2014), Arsenic in groundwater impacts 7 crore lives: Panel, The Times of India, December 12, 2014.
Uqaili A.A. , Mughal H. A., Maheshwari K. B, Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water Sources of District Matiari, Sindh, August 2012, Volume 3, No.4 International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
World Bank Report, (Towards a more effective operational response- Arsenic contamination of ground water in South & East Asian Countries) Volume II technical report by WB & WSP