Soils Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons and Green Waste Elimination through Composting Process
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 13-22
Received: Sep. 10, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 15, 2014; Published: Sep. 23, 2014
Views 3666      Downloads 187
Authors
Hicham Rhbal, Laboratory of the Water and of Environment Engineering FSTM University Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc; Laboratoire de Virologie et Hygiène & Microbiologie – FSTM Université Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc; Laboratory of Quality Control of Anonym Company of Industry and of Refinery, Mohammedia, Morocco
Salah Souabi, Laboratory of the Water and of Environment Engineering FSTM University Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc
Mohamed Safi, Laboratory of the Water and of Environment Engineering FSTM University Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc
Mohamed Terta, Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement Département De Biologie Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté Des Sciences Samlalia
Mohmed Arad, Laboratory of Quality Control of Anonym Company of Industry and of Refinery, Mohammedia, Morocco
Abdelkader Anouzla, Laboratory of the Water and of Environment Engineering FSTM University Hassan II, Mohammedia, Maroc
Mohamed Hafid, Laboratoire d’Ecologie et Environnement Département De Biologie Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté Des Sciences Samlalia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the mineralization of hydrocarbons during composting. For this purpose, soil/green waste mixtures were prepared at three different ratios (S/GW= 60/40, 70/30, 80/20) composted for 90 days. An unamended polluted soil (100% soil) was used as the control. The results indicate that the composting process greatly increased the overall rate of hydrocarbon mineralization. The greatest loss of hydrocarbons was obtained in the first compost with the most green waste (96%), followed by the second where losses were still high (78%). In the compost with the least green waste, the hydrocarbon concentration decreased by only 64%. The hydrocarbon level in the control system remained practically unchanged. In addition, mineralization time increased with increasing green waste ratios, the composting process played a considerable role in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and minimized the green waste produced by restaurants and cafeterias. The data obtained will be useful for solid waste management policy making.
Keywords
Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Green Waste, Refinery, Composting, Solid Waste Management
To cite this article
Hicham Rhbal, Salah Souabi, Mohamed Safi, Mohamed Terta, Mohmed Arad, Abdelkader Anouzla, Mohamed Hafid, Soils Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons and Green Waste Elimination through Composting Process, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Special Issue:Environmental Science and Treatment Technology. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 13-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.13
References
[1]
Burger, A.E., 1993. Estimating the mortality of seabirds following oils pills – effects of spill volume. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 26, 239–248.
[2]
Shaw, D.G., 1992. The Exxon-valdez oil-spill-ecology and social consequences. Environ. Conserv. 19, 253–258.
[3]
Ferrari, M.D., Neirotti, E., Albornoz, C., Mostazo, M.R., Cozzo, M., 1996. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludge in soil slurries. Biotechnol. Lett. 18, 1241–1246.
[4]
Nicholas, R.B., 1987. Biotechnology in hazardous-waste disposal: an unfulWlled promise. Am. Soc. Microbiol. News 53, 13
[5]
Vasudevan, N., Rajaram, P., 2001. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil. Environ. Int. 26, 409–411.
[6]
Rahman, K.S.M., Thahira-Rahman, J., Kourkoutas, Y., Petsas, I., Marchant, R., Banat, I.M., 2003. Enhanced bioremediation of n-alkanes in petroleum sludge using bacterial consortium amended with rhamno- lipid and micronutrients. Bioresour. Technol. 90, 159–168.
[7]
Merkel, N., Schultez-Kraft, R., Infante, C., 2004. Phytoremediation of petroleum- contaminated soils in the tropics-preselection of plant species from eastern Venezuela. J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 78, 185–192.
[8]
Chehregani, A., Malayeri, B., 2007. Removal of heavy metals by native accumulator plants. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 9, 462–465.
[9]
Chehregani, A., Mohsenzade, F., Vaezi, F., 2009. Introducing a new metal accumulator plant and the evaluation of its ability in removing heavy. Toxicol. Environ. Chem 72, 1349–1353.
[10]
Wiltse, C.C., Rooney, W.L., Chen, Z., Schwab, A.P., Banks, M.K., 1998. Greenhouse evaluation of agronomic and crude oil-phytoremediation potential among alfalfa genotypes. J. Environ. Qual. 27, 169–173.
[11]
Radwan, S.S., Al-Awadhi, H., Sorkhoh, N.A., El-Nemer, I.M., 1998. Rhizospheric hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms as potential contributors to phytor- emediation for the oily Kuwait desert. Microbiol. Res. 153, 247–251.
[12]
Merkel, N., Schultez-Kraft, R., Infante, C., 2005. Assessment of tropical grasses and legumes for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. Water Air Soil Pollut. 165, 235–242.
[13]
Dominguez-Rosado, E., Pichtel, J., 2004. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used motor oil: II. Greenhouse studies. Environ. Eng. Sci. 21, 169–180.
[14]
Chaineau, C.H., More, J.L., Oudot, J., 2000. Biodegradation of fuel oil hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of maize. J. Environ. Qual. 29, 568–578
[15]
Angehrn., D., Ga¨ lli, R., Zeyer, J., 1998. Physicochemical characterization of residual mineral oil contaminants in bioremediated soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 268–276.
[16]
Sudarat Boonchan, Margaret L. Britz, And Grant A. Stanley 1998. Degradation And Mineralization Of High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons By Defined Fungal-Bacterial Cocultures Applied And Environmental Microbiology 64, 4180–4184.
[17]
Rachel May Long 2008 The Distribution And Diversity Of Polycyclicaromatic Compound-Degrading Bacteria And Key Degradative Genes Thesis
[18]
Priyangshu Manab Sarma, Dhruva Bhattacharya, S. Krishnan, And Banwari Lal 2004 Degradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons By A Newly Discovered Enteric Bacterium, Leclercia Adecarboxylata Applied And Environmental Microbiology, 70 3163–3166
[19]
Das, K., Mukherjee, A. K., in press. Crude petroleum-oil biodegradation eYciency of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from a petroleum-oil contaminated soil from North-East India. Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 1339–1345
[20]
Kôrner, I., Braukmeier, J., Herrenklage, J., Leikam, K., Ritzkowski, M., Schlegelmilch, M., Stegmann, R., 2003. Investigation and optimization of composting processes-test systems and pratical examples. Waste manag. 23, 17-26
[21]
Zbytniewski, R., Bszewski, B., 2005a. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from sewage sludge compost. Part 2: multivariate techniques in the study of compost maturation. Biores. Technol. 96, 479-484.
[22]
Castaldi, P., Alberti, G., Merella, R., Melis, P., 2005. Study of the organic matter evolution during municipal solid waste composting aimed at identifying suitable parameters for the evolution of compost maturity. Waste Manage. 25, 209-213
[23]
Diez, J.A., De la Torre, A.I., Cartagena, M.C., Carballo, M., Vallejo, A., Munoz, M.J., 2001. Evaluation of the application of pig slurry to an experimental crop using agronomic and ecotoxicological approaches. J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2165-2172
[24]
Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., Costa, F., 1991. The influence of composting in the fertilizing value of an aerobic sewage sludge. Plant Soil 136, 269-272
[25]
Tognetti, S.M., Laos, F., Mazzarino, M.J., Hernandez, M.T., 2005. Compostion vs. Vermicomposting: a comparison of end product quality. Compost Sci. Util. 13, 6-13
[26]
Zbytniewski, R., Bszewski, B., 2005b. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from sewage sludge compost. Part 1: chemical and spectroscopic properties. Biores. Technol. 96, 471-478.
[27]
Pascual, J.A., Ayuso. M., Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., 1997. Characterization of urban wastes according to fertility and phytotoxicity parameters. Waste Manage. Res. 15, 103-112
[28]
Ro KS, Preston KT, Seiden S, bergs MS. Remediation composting process principles: focus on soils contaminated with explosive compounds. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 1998;28:253-82
[29]
Semple, K.T., Reid, B.J., Fermor, T.R., 2001. Impact of composting strategies on the treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. Environ. Pollut. 112, 269-283.
[30]
Antizar-Ladislao B, Lopez-Real JM, Beck AJ. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated waste using composting approaches. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 2004;34;249-89
[31]
Birnstingl JGA. An investigation into the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a manufactured gas plan soil. Lancaster (UK): University of Lancaster;1997
[32]
Namkoong, W., Hwang, E.-Y., Park, J.-S., Choi, J.-Y., 2002. Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with composting. Environ. Pollut. 119, 23–31.
[33]
AFNOR, recueil des normes français, Qualité des sols, AFNOR Edition, (1994), 250 p.
[34]
Richard T. Cornell Composting (on line). Available at: compost. CSS. Cornell. edu/Composting- homepage. html (accessed 2004), 1995.
[35]
Montgomery, D.C., 2003. Diseno y analisis de experimentos, second ed. Wiley Ed S A, CV, Limusa.
[36]
Walworth, J.L., Woolard, C.R., Braddok, J.F., Reynolds, C.M., 1997. Enhancement and inhibition of soil petroleum biodegradation through the use of fertilizer nitrogen: an approach to determining optimum levels. J . Soil Contam. 6 (5), 464-480
[37]
French industrial standards authority x 31 - 103 (French industrial standards authority; Quality of soils; 1994)
[38]
FRENCH INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AUTHORITY X 31 – 109 (French Industrial Standards Authority; Quality of soils), 1994;
[39]
Hicham Rhbal, Salah Souabi , Mohamed Safi , Mohamed Arad, Abdelkader Anouzla, 2010.Hydrocarbons diagnostic of polluted soils Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 449-458.
[40]
Schwab, A.P., Su, J., Wetzel, S., Pekarek, S., Banks, M.K., 1999. Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking. Environmental Science and Technology 33, 1940–1945.
[41]
Chikere, C. B. Okpokwasili1 G. C. and Chikere B. O., 2009 Bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil-polluted soil undergoing bioremediation, African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (11), pp. 2535-2540, 3 June, 2009.
[42]
Market Abakpa, Enugu State, Nigeria Eze, V.C., Eleke, O.I. and Omeh, Y.S. 2011. Microbiological and nutritional qualities of burukutu sold in mammy. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 1(3): 141-146
[43]
Lakshmipriya V.P. and Sivakumar P.K. 2012. Isolation and Characterization of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria and Exopolysaccharide Produced From Mangrove Ecosystem, International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 3(3):679-684
[44]
Pansu, M, Gautheyrou, J.: L’analyse du sol minéralogique, organique et minérale, Springer, France, Paris, 2003;
[45]
INRA: Référentiel Pédologique, Association Française d’Etude de sols, INRA, 1995;
[46]
Cerniglia, C.E.: Fungal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: past, present and future applications in bioremediation, Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1997, 19, 324-333;
[47]
Sundberg, C., 2005. Improving compost process efficiency by controlling aeration, temperature and pH. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
[48]
Kuroda, K., Hanajima, D., Fukumoto, Y., Suzuki, K., Kawamoto, S., Shima, J., Haga, K., 2004. Isolation of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium and its application to reduce ammonia emission
[49]
Atlas, R.M., 1981. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective. Microbiol. Rev. 45, 180–209.
[50]
Piehler, M.F., Paerl, H.W., 1996. Enhanced biodegradation of diesel fuel through the addition of particulate organic carbon and inorganic nutrients in coastal marine water. Biodegradation 7, 239–247.
[51]
Roy, R., Greer, C.W., 2000. Hexadecane mineralization and denitrification in two diesel fuel-contaminated soils. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 32, 17–2
[52]
Korboulewsky, N., Bonin, G., Massiani, C., 2002. Biological and ecophysiological reaction of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on biosolid compost. Environ. Pollut. 117, 365–370.
[53]
Hutchinson, S.L., Banks, M.K., Schwab, A.P., 2001. Phytoremediation of aged petroleum biosolids: effect of inorganic material. J. Environ. Qual. 30, 395–403.
[54]
Liao, P.H., May, A.C., Chieng, S.T., 1995. Monitoring process efficiency of a full-scale in vessel system for composting fisheries wastes. Bioresource Technology 54, 159–163.
[55]
Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., Costa, F., Ayuso, M.,1992a. Evaluation of the maturity of municipal waste composts using simple chemical parameters. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 23, 1501-1512
[56]
USEPA, 1998a. Method 3051. Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Sediments, Biosolids, Soils, and Oils. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of wastewater Management, Washington DC.
[57]
Chen, M.J., Liao, C.Z., Tsai, Y.F., 2005. Manual and Case Studies of Composting Technology and Equipment. Issued by the Taiwan Green Productivity Foundation, Prepared for the Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan
[58]
Reddy, K.R., Kaleel, R., Overcash, M.R., Westerman, P.W., 1979. A nonpoint source model for land areas receiving animal wastes: ammonia volatilization. Trans. ASAE 22, 1398–1405.
[59]
Sanchez-Monedero, M.A., Roig, A., Paredes, C., Bernal, M.P., 2001. Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures. Biores. Technol. 78, 301–30
[60]
Ashbolt, N. J. & Line, M. A. (1982). A bench-scale system to study the composting of organic wastes. Environmental Quality, 11, 405-8.
[61]
Nakasaki, K., Shoda, M. & Kubota, H. (1985b). Effect ot" temperature on composting of sewage sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 50, 1526 30.
[62]
Sikora, k. J. & Sowers, M. A. (1983). Factors affecting the composting process. In: Composting ~fwastes and slurries. (Stentiford, E. (Ed)), Leeds University Press, England, 1-22.
[63]
Nakasaki, K., Yaguchi, H., Sasaki, Y., Kubota, H., 1992. Effect of C/N ratio on thermophilic composting of garbage. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 73,43,-45
[64]
Guerin TF. The differential removal of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil during bioremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2000; 7:19-26
[65]
Joo, H.S., Phae, CG., Ryu, J.Y.,2001. Comparison and analysis on characteristics for recycling of multifarious food waste. J.KOWREC 9, 117-124
[66]
Joo, H.S., Shoda, M., Phae, CG., 2007. Degradation of diesel oil in soil using a food waste composting process. Biodegradation 18,597-605
[67]
Anene Moneke and Chika Nwangwu 2011 Studies on the bioutilization of some petroleum hydrocarbons by single and mixed cultures of some bacterial species African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(12), pp. 1457-1466,
[68]
Francisco J. R. C. COELHO, Sara SOUSA, Luísa SANTOS, Ana L. SANTOS, Adelaide ALMEIDA , Newton C. M. GOMES and Ângela CUNHA 2010. PAH Degrading Bacteria in an Estuarine System, Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry — Biological Responses to Contaminants, pp. 77–87.
[69]
Das, K., Mukherjee, A.K., 2005. Characterization of biochemical properties and biological activities of biosurfactants produced by Pseudo- monas aeruginosa mucoid and non-mucoid strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil samples. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 69, 192–199.
[70]
Abalos, A., Vinas, M., Sabate, J., Manresa, M.A., Solanas, A.M., 2004. Enhanced biodegradation of Casablanca crude oil by a microbial consortium in presence of a rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeru- ginosa AT 10. Biodegradation 15, 249–260.
[71]
Jingchun Tang Xiaowei Niu, Qing Sun, Rugang Wang Bioremediation of Petroleum Polluted Soil by Combination of Ryegrass with Effective Microorganisms , 2010, Journal of Environmental Technology and Engineering 3(2):80-86
[72]
Bidoia E. D., R. N. Montagnolli and P. R. M. Lopes, 2010Microbial biodegradation potential of hydrocarbons evaluated by colorimetric technique: a case study current research and education topics in applied microbiology at microbial biotechnology 1277 1288.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186