High Arsenic Enrichment in Water and Soils from Sambayourou Watershed – Burkina Faso (West Africa)
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 6-12
Received: Aug. 29, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 18, 2014; Published: Sep. 23, 2014
Views 3199      Downloads 111
Kagambega Nicolas, Department of mining engineering, Higher National School of Engineers of Fada (ENSI-F), Fada, Burkina Faso; Department of earth sciences, University of Ougadougou, (UO), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Civil and Water Engineering Department, Sciences and Engineering Faculty, University of Laval (UL), Quebec, Canada
Sawadogo Sayouba, Department of earth sciences, University of Ougadougou, (UO), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Gordio Ardjima, Department of earth sciences, University of Ougadougou, (UO), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Article Tools
Follow on us
Sambayourou is one of the main tributary of Mouhoun River in southwest Burkina Faso. Its watershed is part of area affected by mining operations from Poura gold mine in 80s. Investigations on surface water, ground-water and soil from Sambayourou watershed reveal that enormous volume of mine wastes from Poura old gold mine is causing acid mine drainage (AMD). This latter is characterized by a red-brick color, a low pH (2.9) and high contents of arsenic and heavy metals: arsenic (753 ppm), iron (4948 ppm), zinc (51 ppm), copper (38 ppm), cobalt (7 ppm) and lead (4 ppm). The oxidation and acidification of the mine wastes have also resulted in the pollution of some groundwater with concentrations of arsenic and lead beyond acceptable standards. Arsenic is the most polluting element of surface water and ground-water. Concerning ground-water contamination, arsenic come from both mine wastes and host rocks. To assess soil contamination, geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) are used. The use of the index of geo-accumulation is based on seven descriptive classes for increasing geo-accumulation index values. The different values of enrichment factor are divided into five groups corresponding to five categories of contamination. According to geo-accumulation values, the soil in Sambayourou watershed is strongly contaminated by arsenic. This situation is confirmed by enrichment factor which indicates a very high enrichment in arsenic. The very high enrichment in arsenic can derive from erosion of host rocks of ores mineralization which contain sulfide minerals as arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and/or from pedogenesis processes. However, mine wastes are assumed to be the main sources of arsenic contamination of soil in Sambayourou watershed.
Arsenic Enrichment, Acid Mine Drainage, Heavy Metals, Environment, Burkina Faso
To cite this article
Kagambega Nicolas, Sawadogo Sayouba, Gordio Ardjima, High Arsenic Enrichment in Water and Soils from Sambayourou Watershed – Burkina Faso (West Africa), International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Special Issue:Environmental Science and Treatment Technology. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 6-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.12
Aubertin, M., Bussière, B., Bernier, L. Environnement et gestion des rejets miniers, 2202a, manuel sur cédérom.
Voet, E., Jeroen, B.G., Helias, A.U.H. Heavy metals: A problem solved. Methods and models to evaluate policy strategies for heavy metals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 242p.
Artignan, D., Cottard, F. Éléments à prendre en compte pour l’évaluation des impacts environnementaux dans l’élaboration d’un plan de prévention des risques miniers (PPRM). Rapport BRGM / RP -52049 (2003) – FR, 46p.
Patterson, C.C., Settle, D,M., The reduction of orders of magnitude errors in lead analysis of biological materials and natural waters by evaluating and controlling the existent and source of industrial lead, handling, and analysis, Natl. Bureau Stand. Spec. 1976, Publ. 422, pp. 321-351.
Kleimann, R.L.P., Crerar, D.A. Pacellil, R.R., Biogeochemistry of acid mine drainage and a method to control acid formation. Mining Engineering, 1981, pp. 300-304.
Aubertin, M., Bussière, B., Bernier, L., Chapuis, R., Julien, M., Belem, T., Simon, R., Mbonimpa, M., Benzaazoua, M. La gestion des rejets miniers dans un context de développement durable et de protection de l’environnement. Congrès annuel de la société canadienne de genie civil, 2002, Article No. GE-045, Montréal, Canada.
Bussière, B., Aubertin, M., Zagury, G., Potvin, R., Benzaazoua, M. Principaux defies et pistes de solution pour la restauration des aires d’entreposage de rejets miniers abandonnées, 2005.
Winfield, M., Coumans, C., Kuyek, J.N., Meloche, F., Taylor, A. Sous la surface: une estimation de la valeur du soutien public aux mines de métaux au Canada. Support for the metal mining industry in Canada, 2002, 57p.
Collon, P. Évolution de la qualité de l’eau dans les mines abandonnées du bassin ferrifère lorrain. De l’expérimentation en laboratoire à la modélisation in situ, Thèse de Doctorat de l’INPL, Nancy, 2003, 247p.
Muller, G. Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River, Geological Journal, 1969, 2 (3), pp. 108-118.
Krzysztof, L., Wiechula, D., Korns, I. Metal contamination of farming soils affected by industry, Environment International, 2003, 30, pp. 159-165.
Levinson, A.A. Introduction to exploration geochemistry, second ed., 1974, the applied publ. Ltd., Wilnette Illinois.
Lar, U.A., Ngozi-Chika, C.S., Ashano, E.C. Human exposure to lead and other potentially harmful elements associated with galena mining at New Zurak central Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 2013, 84, pp. 13-19.
Simex, S.A., Helz, G.R. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Environ. Geol., 1981, 3, pp. 315-323.
Loska, K., Wiechula, D., Barska, B., Cebula, E., Chojnecka, A. Assessment of arsenic enrichment of cultivated soils in southern Poland, Polish journal of environmental studies Vol. 12, No 2(2003), pp. 187-192.
Sutherland, R.A. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii, Environ. Geol., 2000, 39, pp. 611-626.
Kim, C.S., Anthony, T.L., Goldstein, D., Rytuba, J.J. Windborne transport and surface enrichment of arsenic in semi-arid minig regions: examples from the Mojave desert, California, Aeolian Research, 2014, in press.
Oyarzun, R., Lillo, J., Higueras, P., Oyarzun, J., Maturana, H. Strong arsenic enrichment in sediments from the Elqui watershed, Northern Chile: industrial (gold mining at El Indio – Tambo district) vs. geologic processes. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 84 (2004), pp. 53-64.
Smedley, P.L., Knudsen, J., Maiga, D. Arsenic in groundwater from mineralized Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso. Applied Geochemistry, 2007, 22, pp. 1074-1092.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186