Thirty Years’ Quest for Emission Reduction and Energy Efficiency Improvement of Brick Kilns in Bangladesh
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2020, Pages: 11-22
Received: Feb. 6, 2020; Accepted: Feb. 24, 2020; Published: Mar. 10, 2020
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Mohammed Khaliquzzaman, Environment Team, World Bank Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Appalarajugari Sesha Harinath, Environmental and Natural Resources Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA
Shakil Ahmed Ferdousi, Environmental and Natural Resources Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA
Salim Mohammed Munjurul Hannan Khan, MOEFCC (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change), Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Brick kilns have been the backbone of the construction industry in Bangladesh due to non-availability of stones in enough quantity. Brick kilns in the country use age-old technologies, which are inefficient with high emissions. In addition, the industry uses low quality of coal as fuel, with high ash and sulfur content; there by contributing to the worsening of air quality. This paper discusses the developments in brick making during the past 30 years in search of higher energy efficiency and lower pollution. It is seen that the progress in pollution abatement and energy efficiency improvement have been slow; resulting in considerable health burden for the population and other economic losses for a long time. In recent years, some affordable designs of low polluting and more energy efficient kilns have been introduced by the Department of Environment (DOE) through a number of programs; including World Bank financed Clean Air and Sustainable Environment (CASE) Project. These efforts have led to considerable pollution reduction i.e., by more than 70% for PM (Particulate Matter) and coal consumption reduction by around 30% at individual brick kiln level. Large low emission industrial kilns with imported technology are also being established. However, the rollout of these energy efficient and low emission technologies in substantial numbers is yet to be achieved. Some moves are also afoot to increase the use of non-fired bricks. In order to achieve quick all-round gains, both push as pull factors for the change in current situation need to be mobilized. What is needed is a well-articulated time bound ‘Theory of Change (ToC)’ for green and clean brick industry in the country. Success in this endeavor will substantially reduce the air pollution levels bringing health benefits to local population. Concurrently, it will also reduce the land-use footprint, top soil use, loss of agricultural productivity and Green House Gas (GHG) emission from the brick kilns. In addition, this will also improve employment and working conditions for labor employed in the brick sector. A simplified ToC for a cleaner and greener brick sector for a ten years’ period is outlined in this work.
Brick Kiln, Energy Efficiency, Low Emission, Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, GHG Emission, Health, Top Soil, Theory of Change
To cite this article
Mohammed Khaliquzzaman, Appalarajugari Sesha Harinath, Shakil Ahmed Ferdousi, Salim Mohammed Munjurul Hannan Khan, Thirty Years’ Quest for Emission Reduction and Energy Efficiency Improvement of Brick Kilns in Bangladesh, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 11-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20200801.12
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