Partial Rootzone Drying Irrigation Increase Root Surface Area, Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Use Efficiency in Maize
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 146-153
Received: Dec. 2, 2016;
Published: Dec. 5, 2016
Views 3652 Downloads 173
Wang Zhenchang, Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation–Drainage and Agricultural Soil–Water Environment in Southern China, Ministry of Education, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Yu Xiaofei, Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation–Drainage and Agricultural Soil–Water Environment in Southern China, Ministry of Education, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Feng Liang, Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation–Drainage and Agricultural Soil–Water Environment in Southern China, Ministry of Education, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Zhu Jianbin, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is an effective water-saving irrigation method and the heterogeneous soil moisture distribution induced by the method may affect root activities, crop water use efficiency and participation of different part of organ. The effects of deficit irrigation (DI) and PRD on leaf and root surface areas, root hydraulic conductivity (KR), and gas exchange and water use efficiency, were studied in maize (Zea mays L. cv., a local variety) grown in pots in the field for two months in the arid climate of Gansu Province, northwest of China in 2009. The PRD treatment was applied in two modes as PRD1 and PRD2, and they were obtained by the soil water content of the dry compartment had decreased to 18% (vol.) and 11% (vol.) (approximate 60% and 30% of the pot holding capacity) before shifting side of irrigation, respectively. DI2 was irrigated with the same irrigation amount with PRD2, while water was equally separated to two compartments. The full irrigation (FI), PRD1, PRD2 and DI2 received 10.75, 8.70, 8.45 and 8.45 liters of water during the treatment period, respectively. The evapo-transpiration water use efficiency (WUEET) was significantly higher in the PRD2 than in the DI2. PRD1 and PRD2 significantly (P<0.05) increased the root surface areas compared to DI2 by 17.8% and 14.6%, respectively, and that resulted in ratio of root surface area to leaf area of PRD2 significantly higher than that of DI2. Further, compared to DI2 and FI, PRD2 significantly (P<0.05) increased KR by 15% and 34%, respectively. The intrinsic WUE, the net photosynthesis (A) and gs relationship (A/gs), were the highest in the PRD2 treatment as compared with the other treatments on 4 f 5 occasions. On 3 out of 5 occasions, the A/gs values of PRD2 plants were significantly higher than those of FI plants. Our results indicate that PRD2 increased root-shoot surface ratio and the root hydraulic conductivity and those might play a major role in enhancing WUEET.
Partial Rootzone Drying Irrigation Increase Root Surface Area, Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Use Efficiency in Maize, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 146-153.
Kang S, Zhang J, Liang Z, Hu X, Cai H (1997) Controlled alternate partial rootzone irrigation: a new approach for water saving regulation in farmland. Agri Res Arid Areas 15: 1–6.
English, M. and Raja, S. N., 1996. Perspectives on deficit irrigation. Agric. Water Manage. 32, pp. 1–14.
Stoll M, Loveys B, Dry P (2000) Hormonal changes induced by partial rootzone drying of irrigated grapevine. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 1627–1634. doi: 10.1093/jexbot/51.350.1627.
Kang S, Liang Z, Pan Y, Shi P, Zhang J (2000) Alternate furrow irrigation for maize production in an arid area. Agric Water Manag 45:267–274.
Kang S, Zhang L, Hu X, Li Z, Jerie P (2001) An improve water use efficiency for hot pepper grown under controlled alternate drip irrigation on partial roots. Sci Hortic 89: 257–267.
Kang S, Hu X, Goodwin I, Jerie P (2002) Soil water distribution, water use, and yield of response to partial root zone drying under a shallow groundwater table condition in a pear orchard. Sci Hortic 92:277–291.
Kirda C, Cetin M, Dasgan Y, Topcu S, Kaman H, Ekici B, Derici MR, Ozguven AI (2004) Yield response of greenhouse grown tomato to partial root drying and conventional deficit irrigation. Agric Water Manage 69:191–202.
Sadras VO (2009) Does partial root-zone drying improve irrigation water productivity in the Weld? A meta-analysis. Irri Sci 27:183–190.
Morison JIL, Baker NR, Mullineaux PM, Davies WJ (2008) Improving water use in crop production. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 363:639–658.
Kang S, Zhang J (2004) Controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency. J Exp Bot 55:2437–2446.
Shahnazari A, Liu F, Andersen MN, Jacobsen S-E, Jensen CR (2007) Effects of partial root-zone drying on yield, tuber size and water use efficiency in potato under Weld conditions. Field Crops Res 100:117–124.
Zegbe JA, Behboudian MH, Clothier BE. 2004. Partial rootzone drying is a feasible option for irrigating processing tomatoes. Agricultural Water Management 68, 195–206.
Zegbe JA, Behboudian MH, Clothier BE. 2006. Responses of ‘Petopride’ processing tomato to partial rootzone drying at different phenological stages. Irrigation Science 24, 203–210.
Liu FL, Shahnazari A, Andersen MN, Jacobsen S-E, Jensen CR (2006) Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency. J Exp Bot 57: 3727–3735.
Li F. Jiangmin Yu Mengling Nong, Shaozhong Kang, Jinhua Zhang.(2010) Partial root-zone irrigation enhanced soil enzyme activities and water use of Maize under different ratios of inorganic to organic nitrogen fertilizers Agricultural Water Management 97: 231-239.
Kirda C, Topcu S, Cetin M, Dasgan HY, Kaman H, Topaloglu F, Derici MR, Ekici B (2007) Prospects of partial root zone irrigation for increasing irrigation water use efficiency of major crops in the Mediterranean region. Ann Appl Biol 150:281–291.
Dodd IC, Theobald JC, Bacon MA, Davies WJ (2006) Alternation ofwet and dry sides during partial rootzone drying irrigation alters root-to-shoot signalling of abscisic acid. Functional Plant Biology 33, 1081–1089. doi: 10.1071/FP06203.
Dodd I. C. (2007) Soil moisture heterogeneity during deficit irrigation alters root-to-shoot signalling of abscisic acid. Functional Plant Biology 34, 439–448.
Hose E, Steudle E, Hartung W (2000) Abscisic acid and hydraulic conductivity of maize roots: a root cell- and pressure probe study. Planta 211, 874–882. doi: 10.1007/s004250000412.
Sharp RE (2002) Interaction with ethylene: changing views on the role of abscisic acid in root and shoot growth responses to water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 211–222. doi: 10.1046/j.1365- 3040.2002.00798.x.
Hu Tiantian, Kang Shaozhong, Li Fusheng, Zhang Jianhua. 2011. Effects of partial root-zone irrigation on hydraulic conductivity in soil-root system for maize plant. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62 (12):4163-4172.
Tyree, Melvin T. Patiño Sandra, Bennink John, Alexander John (1995) Dynamic measurements of root hydraulic conductance using a high-presure flow meter in the laboratory and field. Journal of Experimental Botany 282: 83-94.
Böhm, W., 1979. Methods of Studying Root Systems Springer, Berlin.
Darren M. Mingo, Julian C. Theobald, Mark A. Bacon, William J. Davies and Ian C. Dodd.(2004) Biomass allocation in tomato plants grown under partial rootzone drying: enhancement of root growth. Functional Plant Biology.31, 971-978.
L. Wang H. de Kroon G. M. Bo gemann & A. J. M. Smits Partial root drying effects on biomass production in Brassica napus and the significance of root responses Plant and Soil (2005) 276:313–326.
Tanasescu, N., Paltineanu, C., 2004. Root distribution of apple tree under various irrigation systems within the hilly region of Romania. International Agrophysics 18, 175–180.
J. Wang H. de Kroon L. Wang Root foraging and yield components underlying limited effects of Partial Root-zone Drying on oilseed rape, a crop with an indeterminate growth habit Plant and Soil (2009) 323: 163–176.
Liang J, Zhang J, Wong MH. 1997. How do roots control xylem sap ABA concentrations in response to soil drying? Plant and Cell Physiology38, 10–16.
J. Liang, J. Zhang and M. H. Wong Effects of air-filled soil porosity and aeration on the initiation and growth of secondary roots of maize (Zea mays) Plant and Soil (1996) 186: 245-254.
Dodd, Ian C. Measuring and modeling xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) in tomato plants exposed to deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD). Acta Horticulturae (2008), 792: 225-231.
Dodd, Ian C. Rhizosphere manipulations to maximize ‘crop per drop’ during deficit irrigation Journal of Experimental Botany 2009 60(9):2454-2459; doi:10.1093/jxb/erp192.
Fulai Liu, Ri Song, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ali Shahnazari, Mathias N. Andersen, Finn Plauborg, Sven-Erik Jacobsena and Christian R. Jensena Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying. Environmental and Experimental Botany 2008 (63): 385-391.
Yaosheng Wang, Fulai Liu, Mathias N. Andersen and Christian R. Jensen Improved plant nitrogen nutrition contributes to higher water use efficiency in tomatoes under alternate partial root-zone irrigation. Functional Plant Biology 2010 (37): 175–182
Darren M. Mingo Julian C. Theobald Mark A. Bacon, William J. Davies and Ian C. Dodd Biomass allocation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown under partial rootzone drying: enhancement of root growth. Functional Plant Biology 2004(31):971-978.
Kang S, Liang Z, Hu W, Zhang J (1998) Water use efficiency of controlled root-division alternate irrigation on maize plants. Agricultural Water Management 38, 69–76.
Sharp RE, Hsiao TC, Silk WK (1990) Growth of the maize primary root at low water potentials. 2. Role of growth and deposition of hexose and potassium in osmotic adjustment. Plant Physiology 93, 1337–1346.
Masia A, Pitacco A, Braggio L, Giulivo C (1994) Hormonal responses to partial drying of the root system of Helianthus annuus. Journal of Experimental Botany 45, 69–76.
Zhang J, Davies WJ (1989) Abscisic acid produced in dehydrating roots may enable the plant to measure the water status of the soil. Plant, Cell and Environment 12, 73–81.
North GB, Nobel PS (1991) Changes in hydraulic conductivity and anatomy caused by drying and rewetting roots of Agave deserti (Agavaceae). American Journal of Botany 78, 906–915.
Martre P, North GB, Nobel PS (2001) Hydraulic conductance and mercury-sensitive water transport for roots of Opuntia acanthocarpa in relation to soil drying and rewetting. Plant Physiology 126, 352–362.
Martre P, Morillon R, Barrieu F, North GB, Nobel PS, Chrispeels MJ (2002) Plasma membrane aquaporins play a significant role during recovery from water deficit. Plant Physiology 130, 2101–2110. James, A. Z. and William, R. G., 1998. Leaf water relations and plant development of three freeman maple cultivars subjected to drought. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123, pp. 371–375.
Gollan T, Passioura JB, Munns R.1986. Soil water status affects the stomatal conductance of fully turgid wheat and sunflower leaves. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology13, 459–464.
Liu, C. X., Rubœk, G. H., Liu, F. L., Andersen, M. N., 2015. Effect of partial root zone drying and dificit irrigation on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in potato. Agric. Water Manag. 159, 66–76.
Wang Z, Liu F, Kang S, Jensen C R. 2012. Alternate partial rootzone drying irrigation improves nitrogen nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Environ Exp Bot. 75: 36–40.
Karandish F, Shahnazari A. 2016. Soil temperature and maize nitrogen uptake improvement under partial root-zone drying irrigation. Pedosphere. 26 (6): 872–886.