Heavy Metal Pollution Investigation of Left Bank Outfall Drain of Coastal District Badin, Sindh, Pakistan by Using Arc GIS
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 122-132
Received: Apr. 2, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 11, 2015;
Published: Apr. 21, 2015
Views 4454 Downloads 204
Mohammad Amin Qureshi, Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi, Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
Zulfiqar Ali Laghari, Department of Physiology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Khalid Hussain Lashari, Department of Fresh Water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Fouzia Panhwar, Department of Pharmacology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Zameer Ali Palh, Department of Fresh Water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Coastal district Badin of Sindh Pakistan is known as hub of pollution because of surface drain canal network, which continuously carries industrial effluents, municipal wastes, pumped saline water and excess agriculture water of three districts. Agriculture lands, ground water, lakes and Lagoons of the district have been contaminated with toxic heavy metals due to improper infrastructure of Left Bank Outfall Drain. The object of this study was to study the pollution contributed by drains of coastal areas of Badin. Nineteen samples of water were collected from different locations of drains on quarterly basis. Arc GIS was applied for vector mapping. Average results of parameters were EC 5.975 ± 4.956 mS/cm , TDS 3254.17 ± 2810.342 mg/L, Hg 0.0234 ±0.0118 µg/L , Ni 0.0076 ±0.0106mg/L, Cd 0.0245±0.0179mg/L , Zn 0.0393±0.0254mg/L , Cu 0.0890 ± 0.0911 mg/L, Fe 0.0546 ±0.0883mg/L. The results indicated that all parameters were within National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) limits of Pakistan for Industrial effluents. High concentration of TDS, and E.C, near the coastal sampling areas, confirmed that, sea water has been facilitated, with backward flow by same drains due to sea tides. Heavy metal results were also within permissible limits of Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) for agriculture use. Drain water may be used for saline agriculture purpose, if properly checked under Environmental Protection Act of Pakistan 1997.
Mohammad Amin Qureshi,
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi,
Zulfiqar Ali Laghari,
Khalid Hussain Lashari,
Zameer Ali Palh,
Heavy Metal Pollution Investigation of Left Bank Outfall Drain of Coastal District Badin, Sindh, Pakistan by Using Arc GIS, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 122-132.
SIDA, “Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project-I.Regional master plan of Indus delta and coastal zone. Revival of Natural Dhoras” Sindh Water Sector Improvement Plan for Left Bank of Indus, Delta and Coastal Zone, 2013.
EIA, “Environmental Impact Assessment for Exploration Activities in Badin Concession” – Protected Area Final report, 2012.
LBOD, “Review of the performance of the Left Bank Outfall Drain Stage IKPOD, DPOD, Tidal Link and Cholri Weir” Report of the World Bank International Panel Experts, POE Report,2005.
M. Memon, M. S. Soomro , M. S. Akhtar, K. S. Memon “Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan)” Journal of Environmental Monitoring Assessment,2010.doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1616-z.
IUCN, “District Vision Badin A Framework for Sustainable Development”2006.
S.M. Leghari, S. I. H. Jafri, A. Mahar, K. H. Lashari ,S.S. Ali, T.M. Jahangir, and M.Y. Khuahawar “Limonological study of Sanhro, Mehro, Pateji and Cholri lakes of district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan” Pakistan Journal BiologyScience,vol.3 pp1904-1909, 2000
M.A. Qureshi and G. M. Mastoi “The physiochemistry of sugar mill effluent pollution of coastlines in Pakistan” Ecological Engineering, vol. 75pp 137–144, 2015
SIDA, “Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project-I. Regional master plan of Indus delta and coastal zone (WSIP-I), Preparation of regional plan for the left bank of Indus, Delta and Coastal Zone Main report final - Phase – II” Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority 2012.
DDRMP, “District Badin: District Disaster Risk Management Plan Badin, Sindh Province Second Draft District Badin, Sindh” UNDP for DDRMP District Badin ,2007.
NDP, “Management report and recommendation in response to the inspection panel investigation report Pakistan: National Drainage Program” Project International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association 2006.
APHA, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater” 17th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington D C , 1989.
P.A. Burrough, “Principles of Geographic Information System for land Resources Assessment Monograph on Soils and Resources Survey No. 2” Clarendon Press, Oxford, England 1986.
H. M. Baalousha, “Mapping groundwater contamination risk using GIS and groundwater modeling: A case study from the Gaza Strip, Palestine” Arabian Journal of Geosciences,vol.4 pp 483 – 494, 2011.
M.O. Arnous & A.E. El-Rayes, “An integrated GIS and hydro chemical approach to assess groundwater contamination in West Ismailia area, Egypt” Arabian Journal of Geosciencesvol. 6:pp2829- 2842, 2013.
A. Facchinelli, . Sacchi, L. Mallen,“Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils”. J. Environ. Pollut. Vol. 114,pp 313–324, 2001.
F. Wang,“Quantitative Methods and Applications in GIS” Taylor & Francis, New York,2006.
M. S. Saif, Midrar-ul-Haq , K. S. Memon,“Heavy Metals Contamination through Industrial Effluent to Irrigation Water and Soil in Korangi Area of Karachi Pakistan” Internationa Journal of Agrriculture and Biology, vol. 4pp 646–648,2005.
A.A. Othman, S. A. Rabeh, M. Fayez,M, Monib,N.A. Hegazi,“El-Salam canal is a potential project reusing the Nile Delta drainage water for Sinai desert agriculture: Microbial and chemical water quality” Journal of Advance Research pp99-108,2012.
M. Tariq, M. Ali, Z. Shah, “Characteristics of industrial effluents and their possible impactson quality of underground water” Soil & Environment, vol. 25pp 64-69,2006.
M. Iqbal, R.G.J. Edyvean, “Loofah sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution” Chemosphere, vol. 61, pp 510–518,2005.
M. Y. Khuhawar and S. A. Majidano, “An Investigation of Quality of Groundwater of Taluka Nawabshah” Pakakistan Journal of Chemistery vol. 1(2)pp 65-71,2011.
H. Devnani, S. P. Satsangee, “Green gold nano particle modified anthocyanin-based carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of heavy metals” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2014. DOI10.1007/s13762-014-0497-z
M. Iqbal, A. Saeed, S.I. Zafar, “Hybrid biosorbent: an innovative matrix to enhance the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution” Journal of Hazard Materials.vol.148pp 47–55, 2007.
H.M. Ali, E.M. EL-Mahrouk, F.A. Hassan, M.A.EL-Tarawy, “Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swieteniamahagoni (L.) Jacq” Saudi Journal of Biology and Science, vol.18,pp 201–207. 2011.
M. Shakirullah, I. Ahmed , K. Mehmood , A .Khan , H. Rehman, S. AlamA. A. Shah, “Physicochemical Study of Drinking Water from Dir Districts” Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan vol. 27(4), pp 374-387,2005.
S. Farid, M. K. Baloch and S.A. Ahmad ,“Water pollution: Major issue in urban areas” International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering vol. 4,pp55-65,2012.
M. J. Ellenhorn, D. G. Barceloux, “Medical toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning”, New York, Elsevier Science publishing company 1988.