Occurrence and Chemistry of Co-contamination of Nitrate and Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Gas-Flared Areas of Niger-Delta, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages: 154-161
Received: Jul. 28, 2013; Published: Aug. 30, 2013
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Haruna Adamu, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; Department of Environmental Management Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Bappah Adamu Umar, Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; National Centre for Petroleum Research and Development, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Research Centre, Bauchi, Nigeria
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Scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the prime source, chemistry and potential environmental and health effects of co-contamination of nitrate and hydrocarbon pollutants commonly found in soils and surface- and groundwaters of Niger-Delta region of Nigeria, which substantially resulted from oil and gas exploration and exploitation via gas flaring of associated natural gas of crude oil. Gas flaring in Niger-Delta has impacted on the nitrate and hydrocarbon pollution of the region and thus, brought out attendant environmental and public health implications in the region. The historic trend of gas flaring presented by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx, the precursor of nitrate), hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds presented by Shell-Nigeria suggest that amounts in excess of cubic meters of these are continuously generated year-in and year-out has established the co-contamination of nitrate and organic pollutants in the region. Therefore, as the problem now is brought out conspicuously, the paper could contribute in the justification of the existence of the co-contamination, which could serve as an ignition key for the investigation of an appropriate remediation technique that can simultaneously remove/degrade nitrates that co-exist with organic pollutants.
Co-Contamination, Nitrate, Organic, Pollutants, Niger-Delta
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Haruna Adamu, Bappah Adamu Umar, Occurrence and Chemistry of Co-contamination of Nitrate and Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Gas-Flared Areas of Niger-Delta, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, pp. 154-161. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20130104.17
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