Evaluation of the Res-ponses of a Wetland, Tropical Earthworm to Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 47-52
Received: Mar. 29, 2013;
Published: Apr. 2, 2013
Views 2963 Downloads 122
Ebenezer Olasunkanmi Dada, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos
Kelechi Longinus Njoku, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos
Akinniyi Adediran Osuntoki, Department of Biochemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos
Modupe Olatunde Akinola, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos
In view of the global importance of wetlands in providing food and income for millions of people through agricultural activities, efforts should be geared toward identifying appropriate biomonitoring organisms for them. This study investigated the mortality and burrowing responses of Libyodrilus violaceus earthworm to heavy metals in the laboratory. The worms were subjected to heavy metal spiked soil in graded concentrations following the procedure recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for a period of 14 days. Zn had the highest significant mean lethal effect (6.35±4.04) on this species, followed by the mixtures of Zn, Cd (5.90±5.05); Zn, Pb, Cd (5.40±4.5); Zn, Pb (5.05±4.37), in that order. The median lethal concentration (LC 50) values for zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) obtained from the study stood at 520.06, 1551.55, and 706.66 mg/kg soil respectively. The species also showed inhibited burrowing responses to these metals in individual and combined concentrations. It is concluded that L. violaceus should be a candidate for con-sideration in assessing the health of wetland soils.
Ebenezer Olasunkanmi Dada,
Kelechi Longinus Njoku,
Akinniyi Adediran Osuntoki,
Modupe Olatunde Akinola,
Evaluation of the Res-ponses of a Wetland, Tropical Earthworm to Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2013, pp. 47-52.
Sinha R. K., Bharambe G Ryan, D. 2008. Converting wasteland into wonderland by earthworms – a low-cost nature’s technology for soil remediation: A case study of vermiremediation of PAH contaminated soil. The Environmentalist, 28 (4), 466-475.
Clark RB. Marine Pollution. 1992. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 61-79.
Akinola M.O., Njoku K. L., Ifitezue N. V. 2011 Assessment of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) concentration in Paspalum orbiculare near municipal refuse dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment, 3 (16), 509-514.
Akinola M.O., Njoku K. L., Ekeifo, B. E. 2008. Determination of lead, cadmium and chromium in the tissue of an economically important plant grown around a textile industry at Ibeshe, Ikorodu Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Advances in Environmental Biology, 2 (1), 25-30.
Lobersli E. M., Steines E.1988. Metal uptake in plants from a birch forest area near a copper smelter in Norway. Water, Air, Soil Pollution, 37, 25-39.
Yaron B., Calvet, R. Prost, R. 1996. Soil Pollution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1984. Earthworm acute toxicity tests. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, 207.
Spurgeon D. J., Hopkin S. P. 2000. The development of genetically inherited resistance to zinc in laboratory – selected generations of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Environmental Pollution, 109, 193-201.
Reinecke S. A., Reinecke A. J. 2004. The comet assay as biomarker of heavy metal genotoxicity in earthworms. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 46, 208-215.
Smith R., Pollard S. J. T., Weeks J. M., Nathanail C.P. 2005. Assessing significant harm to terrestrial ecosystems from contaminated Land. Soil Use and Management, 21, 527-540.
Shin K., Kim J., Kim K. Earthworm toxicity test for the monitoring arsenic and heavy metal – containing mine tailings. Environmental Engineering Science. 2007, 24 (9), 1257-1265.
Hirano T., Tamae K. Earthworms and soil pollutants. Sensors. 2011, 11, 11157-11167. (www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors).
Sinha R. K., Chauhan K., Valani D., Chandran V., Soni B. K., Patel V. 2010. Earthworms: Charles Darwin’s ‘Unheralded Soldiers of Mankind’: Protective and productive for man and environment. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 251-260.
Fitzpatrick L. C., Muratti – Ortiz J. F., Venables B., Goven A. J. H. 1996. Comparative toxicity in earthworm Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 57, 63-68.
Ogunseitan O. A. 2002. Microbial proteins as biomarkers of ecosystem health. in Integrated Assessment of Ecosystem Health (Ed. Scow K. M., Fogg G. E., Hinton D. E., Johnson M.L.), pp. 217-232, Lewis Publishers, Florida.
Maenpaa K.A., Kukkonen J. V. K., Lydy M . J. 2002. Remediation of heavy metal – contaminated soils using phosphorus: Evaluation of bioavailability using an earthworm bioassay. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 43, 389-398.
Hickman Z. A., Reid B. J. 2008. Earthworm assisted bioremediation of organic contaminants. Environment International, 34 (7) 1072-1081.
Hu C.W., Li M., Cui Y. B., Li D.S., Chen J., Yang L. Y. 2010. Toxicological effects of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles in soil on earthworm Eisenia fetida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 586-591.
Owa S. O., Olojo F. 2003. Limicolous earthworms of streams and river banks in Ago-Iwoye, SW Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(3), 3726-3737.
van Dam A. A., Kaggwa R. C., Kipkemboi J. 2006. Integrated pond aquaculture in Lake Victoria Wetlands. in Integrated Irrigation and Aquaculture in West Africa: Practices and Potential (Eds Halwart M., van Dam A. A.), pp. 129-134, Rome, F.A.O.
Owa S. O., Dedeke G. A., Moreyebi O. H., Morafa S.O.A., Serijobi B. A., Aladesida A. A. 2010. Partitioning of chemical effects of earthworms on growth performance of the vegetable Amaranthus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4 (8) 3755-3761.
Laurenco J., Pereira R., Silva A., Carvalho F., Oliveira J., Malta M., Paiva A., Goncalves F., Mendo, S. 2012 Evaluation of the sensitivity of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity end points in earthworms exposed in situ to uranium mining wastes. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 75, 46-54.
Cholewa J., Feeney G. P., O’Reilly M., Sturzenbaum S. R., Morgan A. J., Plytycz, B. 2006. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica, 44 (1), 65-71.
Beddard F. E. 1891. On the structure of an earthworm allied to Nemeortodrilus Mich., with observations on the post-embryonic development of certain organs. Quart. J. Mic. Sci. 1891, 32, 579-586.
Owa S. O. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution of Nigerian earthworms of the family of Eudrilidae and their use as possible indicators of soil properties. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 1992.
Bamgbose O., Odukoya O. O., Arowolo T.O.A. 2000. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta city, Nigeria. Revista de Biologic Tropical, 48, 1-13.
Robidoux P. Y., Hawari J., Thiboutot S., Ampleman G., Sunahara G. I. 1999. Acute toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Ecotoxicological and Environmental Safety, 44 (3), 311-21.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1995. Standard for conducting laboratory soil toxicity test with Lumbricid Eisenia fetida, ASTME 1676-95.
Spurgeon D. J., Hopkin S. P. 1995. Extrapolation of the laboratory – based OECD earthworm toxicity test to metal – contaminated field sites. Ecotoxicology,, 44 (3), 190-205.