Please enter verification code
Geo-Spatial Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature of Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs: Implication for Heat Disaster Management
Earth Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages: 169-177
Received: May 12, 2019; Accepted: Jun. 13, 2019; Published: Jun. 26, 2019
Views 765      Downloads 152
Nwaerema Peace, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Temi Emmanuel Ologunorisa, Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Moses Okemini Nwagbara, Department of Soil Science and Meteorology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umuahia, Nigeria
Ojeh Nduka Vincent, Department of Geography, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Since 1986, the rate of expansion of population and urban pavement materials in Port Harcourt metropolis and environs has generated enormous heat capable of causing disaster. This paper examines geo-spatial dynamics of Land Surface Temperature (LST) of Port Harcourt metropolis and environs from 1986 to 2018 using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach. To achieve this purpose, satellite data were retrieved and analyzed using the algorithm for extracting LST from Landsat 5, 7 and 8 thermal infrared sensor sources from the Google Earth Engine (GEE). The results indicate that in 1986, LST concentrated on the south-western (Bakana) and north-eastern (Oyigbo) sections of the city with temperature range of 19.27°C and 30.17°C having population of 757,022 persons. In 2003, LST concentrated on the city centre, south-western (Bakana) and north-western (Rumuekeni) segments with temperature range of 16.14°C and 34.19°C having population of 1,143,103 persons respectively. Also, in 2018 LST shifted its concentration to north-eastern and south-eastern segments of the city with a variation of 21.6°C and 35.31°C having population of 3,095,342 persons expected to experience heat related ailments such as heat stroke. The city has compromised the standard human comfort threshold of 27°C. It is recommended that there should be immediate urban greening of tree planting, de-congestion of development activities from the eastern segment of Port Harcourt city to the western segment as well as practical implementation of urban management plan without further delay.
Geo-spatial, GIS, Land Surface Temperature, Urban Pavement Materials, Population, Heat Disaster
To cite this article
Nwaerema Peace, Temi Emmanuel Ologunorisa, Moses Okemini Nwagbara, Ojeh Nduka Vincent, Geo-Spatial Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature of Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs: Implication for Heat Disaster Management, Earth Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2019, pp. 169-177. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Obinna, V. C., Owei, O. B. and Mark, I. O. (2010) Informal Settlements of Port Harcourt and Potentials for Planned City Expansion. Environmental Research Journal Vol. 4. doi: 0.3923/erj.2010.222.228.
Kerr, Y. H., Lagouarde, J. P., Nerry, F. and Ottle, C. (2000). Land surface temperature retrieval techniques and applications. In D. A. Quattrochi, & J. C. Luvall (Eds.), Thermal remote sensing in land surface processes (pp. 33–109). Boca Raton, Fla. CRC Press. Available from:›...› Remote Sensing & Photogrammetry.
Nwaerema, P. and Nwagbara, M. O. (2018). Urban Warming in Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, 14 (4), 1-19. doi: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41123.
Voogt, J. A. (2002). Urban heat island. In: Munn, T. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Change. Wiley, New York. 660-666. Available from: (03) 00079-8.
Doick, K. J. and Hutchings, T. R. (2013). Air Temperature Regulation by Trees and Wider Green Infrastructure in Urban Areas: The Current State of Knowledge, Research note 12. Forestry Commission. Edinburgh, UK. Available from:$FILE/FCRN012.pdf.
Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] (2008). Report on the Environment. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-07/045F. Available from:
Patki, P. N. and Pratima, R. A. (2007). Study of Influence of Land Cover on Urban Heat Islands in Pune Using Remote Sensing. Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Second International, 39, 39-43. Available from:
Nwaerema, P and Weli, V. E. (2018). Urban Warming in Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, 14 (4), 1-19. doi: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41123.
Bokaie, M., Zarkesh, M. K., Arasteh, P. D. and Hosseini, A. (2016). Assessment of Urban Heat Island based on the relationship between land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Tehran. Journal of Sustainable Cities and Society, 23, 94-104. doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2016.03.009.
Zhao-Liang, L, Bo-Hui, T., Hua Wu, A., Huazhong R. C., Guangjian, Y, C., Zhengming W. D., Isabel, F., Trigo, E. F. and José, A. S. (2013). Satellite-derived land surface temperature: Current status and perspectives. Journal of Remote Sensing and Environment, 131, 14–37. Available from:
Ramachandra, T. V.1, Bharath, H. A., Durgappa, S. D. (2012). Land Surface Temperature Analysis in an Urbanizing Landscape through Multi Resolution Data. Journal of Space Science and Technology. 1 (1), 1-10. Available from:
Chiadikobi, K. C., Omoboriowo, A. O., Chiaghanam, O. I., Opatola, A. O. and Oyebanji, O. (2011) Flood Risk Assessment of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2 (6), 287-298. Available from:
Fasote, J. (2007). Assessment of land-use and land-cover changes in Port Harcourt and Obio/Akpor local government areas using remote sensing and GIS approach. Available from:
Odu, N. N. and Imaku, L. N. (2013). Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Street-vended Ready-To-Eat Bole (roasted plantain) Fish (Trachurustrachurus) in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Researcher, 5 (3): 9-18. Available from:
Edokpa, D. O. and Nwagbara, M. O. (2017). Atmospheric Stability Pattern over Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, 5 (1), 9-17. Available from:
Ede, P. N and Edokpa, D. O. (2015). Regional Air Quality of Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Open Journal of Air Pollution. 4, 7-15. Available from: doi: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41002.
Mmom, P. C and Fred-Nwagwu, F. W. (2013). Analysis of Land use and Land Cover Change around the City of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Available from:
Happiness, E., Ihueze, H. U. and Victor, U. O. (2007). Land-use and land-cover changes in Port Harcourt and Obio/Akpor Local Government Areas of Rivers State - using remote sensing and GIS approach. Available from:
Hart, M. and Sailor, D. (2009). Quantifying the influence of land-use and surface characteristics on spatial variability in the urban heat island. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 95, 397-406. Available from:
David, P., Zina, M., Nektrarios, C. and Michael, A. (2017). Online Global Land Surface Temperature Estimation from Landsat. Remote Sens. 9 (12), 1208.
Hulley, G. C. and Hook, S. J. (2011). Generating consistent land surface temperature and emissivity products between ASTER and MODIS data for Earth science research. Journal of Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 49, 1304-1315. doi: 0196-2892.
Wan, Z., Li, L. (2008). Radiance-based validation of the V5 MODIS land-surface temperature product. Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 5373-5395.
Li, Z. L., Tang, H., Wu, H., Ren, H., Yan, G. J., Wan, Z., Trigo, I. F., Sobrino, J. (2013). Satellite-derived land surface temperature: Current status and perspectives. Remote Sens. Environ. 2013, 131, 14-37. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.12.008.
National Population Commission [NPC]. (2017). Administrative Division. Nigeria: Author. Available from:
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186