Please enter verification code
The Impact of the Processes in the Southern Ocean on ENSO Development
Earth Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 117-125
Received: Apr. 1, 2019; Accepted: Apr. 26, 2019; Published: May 15, 2019
Views 770      Downloads 119
Vladimir Nikolaevich Stepanov, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK; Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The paper presents the review of the model study of the role of the Southern Ocean in the processes of interaction of the ocean-atmosphere system at short time scales impacting the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the variability of wind and atmospheric pressure over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), together with the effects of the topography and coastline, significantly impact the development of ENSO events. A new paradigm for ENSO is proposed that allows explaining the current weakening of the interrelation between the variability in wind and water volume in the tropical warm pool in the western equatorial Pacific and the onset of ENSO. The weakness of the interrelationship between ENSO and variability in the equatorial warm water volume of the equatorial Pacific, together with wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific, can be explained by the fact that the process occurred in the Southern Ocean recently became a major contributor amplifying ENSO events. The reproduction in numerical models of ocean dynamics for the mechanism found can improve the accuracy of the forecast of El Niño events.
ENSO, The Southern Ocean, Numerical Modelling
To cite this article
Vladimir Nikolaevich Stepanov, The Impact of the Processes in the Southern Ocean on ENSO Development, Earth Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2019, pp. 117-125. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Alexander, M. A., et al. 2008: Forecasting Pacific SSTs: Linear inverse model predictions of the PDO, J. Clim., 21, 385–402, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1849.1.
Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007, doi:10.1029/2006JC003798.
Blaker, A. T., B. Sinha, V. O. Ivchenko, N. C. Wells, and V. B. Zalesny, 2006: Identifying the roles of the ocean and atmosphere in creating a rapid equatorial response to a Southern Ocean anomaly, Geophysical Research Letters, v.33, L06720, doi:10.1029/2005GL025474.
Byshev V. I., et al. 2012: El Niño as a Consequence of the Global Oscillation in the Dynamics of the Earth’s Climatic System. Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 446, no 1, pp. 1089-1093.
Chang, P., L. Zhang, R. Saravanan, D. J. Vimont, J. C. H. Chiang, L. Ji, H. Seidel, and M. K. Tippett, 2007: Pacific meridional mode and El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16608, doi:10.1029/2007GL030302.
Clarke, A. J., and S. Van Gorder, 2003: Improving El Niño prediction using a space-time integration of Indo-Pacific winds and equatorial Pacific upper ocean heat content, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1399, doi:10.1029/2002GL016673.
Cox, C. M., and B. F., Chao, 2002: Detection of a large-scale mass redistribution on the terrestrial system since 1998. Science, 297, pp. 831– 833.
Dong, B., R. T. Sutton, and A. A. Scaife, 2006: Multidecadal modulation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance by Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures, Geophysical Research Letters, v.33, L08705, doi:10.1029/2006GL025766.
Eisenman I., L. Yu, E. Tziperman, 2005: Westerly Wind Bursts: ENSO’s tail rather than the dog?, J. Climate, 18, 5224-5238.
Flügel M., P. Chang, C. Penland, 2004: The role of stochastic forcing in modulating ENSO predictability, J. Climate, 17, 3125-3140.
Gushchina, D. Yu. “El Niño Modification under Conditions of Changing Climate: Monitoring, Causes, and Teleconnections.” Abstracts of the Doctor’s Thesis in Geography (Moscow, 2014) [in Russian].
Horii T., I. Ueki, and K. Hanawa, 2012: Breakdown of ENSO predictors in the 2000s: Decadal changes of recharge/discharge-SST phase relation and atmospheric intraseasonal forcing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10707, doi:10.1029/2012GL051740.
Hughes, C. W., and Stepanov, V. 2004: Ocean dynamics associated with rapid J2 fluctuations: Importance of circumpolar modes and identification of a coherent Arctic mode. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C06002, doi: 10.1029/2003JC002176.
Ivchenko V. O., V. B. Zalesny, and M. R. Drinkwater, 2004: Can the equatorial ocean quickly respond to Antarctica sea ice/salinity anomalies? Geophysical Research Letters, v.31, L15310, doi:10.1029/2004GL020472.
Ivchenko V. O., V. B. Zalesny, and M. R. Drinkwater and J. Schröter, 2006: A quick response of the equatorial ocean to Antarctic sea ice/salinity anomalies, J. of Geophysical Research, vol. 111, C10018, doi:10.1029/2005JC003061.
Jin, F.-F. 1997: An equatorial recharge paradigm for ENSO. Part I: Conceptual model. J. Atmos. Sci., 1997, V.54, p. 811–829.
Kao, H.-Y., and J.-Y. Yu, 2009: Contrasting eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific types of ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 615–632.
Kug, J.-S., F.-F. Jin, and S.-I. An, 2009: Two types of El Niño events: Cold Tongue El Niño and Warm Pool El Niño, J. Clim., 22, 1499–1515, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2624.1.
Kwok, R. and J. C. Comiso, 2002: Southern Ocean climate and sea ice anomalies associated with the Southern Oscillation, J. Climate, 15, 487-501.
Larkin, N. K., and D. E. Harrison, 2005: Global seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies during El Niño autumn and winter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16705, doi:10.1029/2005GL022860.
Lau N.-C., A. Leetmaa, M. J. Nath, H.-L. Wang, 2005: Influence of ENSO-induced Indo-Western Pacific SST anomalies on extratropical atmospheric variability during the boreal summer, Climate, 18, 2922-2942.
Lee, T., and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14603, doi:10.1029/2010GL044007.
Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50-day period, J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109–1123, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029< 1109:DOGSCC>2.0. CO;2.
McPhaden, M. J. 2003: Tropical Pacific Ocean heat content variations and ENSO persistence barriers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(9), 1480, doi:10.1029/2003GL016872.
McPhaden, M. J., X. Zhang, H. H. Hendon, and M. C. Wheeler, 2006: Large-scale dynamics and MJO forcing of ENSO variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16702, doi:10.1029/2006GL026786.
Menkes, C. E., et al. 2014: About the Role of Westerly Wind Events in the Possible Development of an El Niño in 2014. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, Issue 18, pp. 6476–6483.
Mokhov I. I., and D. A. Smirnov, 2006: El Niño-Southern Oscillation drives North Atlantic Oscillation as revealed with nonlinear techniques from climatic indices, Geophysical Research Letters, v.33, L03708, doi:10.1029/2005GL024557.
Müller W. A., and E. Roecker, 2006: ENSO impact on midlatitude circulation patterns in future climate change projections, Geophysical Research Letters, v.33, L05711, doi:10.1029/2005GL025032.
Nicholls N., H.-J. Baek, A. Gosai, L. E. Chambers, Y. Choi, D. Collins, P. M. Della-Marta, G. M. Griffiths, M. R. Haylock, N. Iga, R. Lata, L. Maitrepierre, M. J. Manton, H. Nakamigawa, N. Ouprasitwong, D. Solofa, L. Tahani, D. T. Thuy, L. Tibig, B. Trewin, K. Vediapan, and P. Zhai, 2005: The El Niño-Southern Oscillation and daily temperature extremes in east Asia and the west Pacific, Geophysical Research Letters, v.32, L16714, doi:10.1029/2005GL022621.
Pierce, D. W., T. P. Barnett, and M. Latif, 2000: Connections between the Pacific Ocean tropics and midlatitudes on decadal timescales, J. Clim., 13, 1173–1194, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1173:CBTPOT>2.0. CO2.
Simmonds, I., and T. H. Jacka, 1995: Relationship between the interannual variability of Antarctic sea ice and the Southern Oscillation, J. Climate, 8, 637-647.
Stepanov V. N. and C. W. Hughes, 2004: The Parameterization of Ocean Self-Attraction and Loading in Numerical Models of the Ocean Circulation, J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0037.
Stepanov V. N. and C. W. Hughes, 2006: Propagation of signals in basin-scale bottom pressure from a barotropic model, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C12002, doi:10.1029/2005JC003450.
Stepanov V. N. 2009: The meridional transport fluctuations in the Southern Ocean and its link with the ENSO events. Oceanology, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 5–19
Stepanov V. N. 2009: The modelling of the ENSO events using a simple model. Oceanology, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 310–319.
Stepanov V. N. 2016: A plausible reason of the changes in El Niño parameters in the 2000s. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, Vol. 41, No 11, pp. 747-759, doi10.3103/S106837391611 0029.
Stepanov V. N., H. Zuo, and K. Haines, 2012: The link between the Barents Sea and ENSO events simulated by NEMO model. Ocean Sciences, 8, pp. 971–982, doi:10.5194/os-8-971-2012.
Su J., et al. 2014: Abrupt Termination of the 2012 Pacific Warming and Its Implication on ENSO Prediction. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, pp. 9058–9064, doi:10.1002/2014GL062380.
Terray P. 2011: Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical forcing: a new paradigm for El Niño -Southern Oscillation, Clim Dyn (2011) 36:2171–2199, DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0825-z.
Vimont, D. J., J. M. Wallace, and D. S. Battisti, 2003: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the Pacific: Implications for ENSO, J. Clim., 16, 2668–2675, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2668:TSFMIT>2.0. CO2.
Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2003: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the CSIRO general circulation models, J. Clim., 16, 2653–2667, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2653:TSFMIT>2.0. CO2.
Wang S.-Yu, M. L’Heureux, and H.-H. Chia, 2012: ENSO prediction one year in advance using western North Pacific sea surface temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L05702, doi:10.1029/2012GL050909.
Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, B. Dewitte, M.-H. Kwon, B. Kirtman, and F.-F. Jin, 2009: El Niño in a changing climate, Nature, 461, 511–514, doi:10.1038/nature08316.
Yuan, X. and D. G. Martinson, 2000: Antarctic sea ice extent variability and its global connectivity, J. Climate, 13, 1697-1717.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186