Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2018, Pages: 260-267
Received: Aug. 20, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 30, 2018;
Published: Oct. 29, 2018
Views 1160 Downloads 141
Akihiro Kinda, Kyoto Institute, Library and Archives (KILA), Kyoto, Japan
This paper discusses on the meaning and the nature of old maps of both small and large scales for historical geography. The old map can be an object of research itself as well as a source for research on something else. But both research directions have been closely connected with each other, and also each research direction needs inevitably another. Roughly speaking, small scale old maps mean mainly world maps, although they have no accurate scale. They commonly reflect the enormous expansion of geographical knowledge acquired during periods of exploration of little-known places, and they clearly reflect the perception of space that pertained at the time when the map was drawn. In case of large scale maps like manorial maps and town/village maps as cadastral ones, they express much local information in which local people interested or according to the land system or land planning in different times. Some large/middle scale maps show more formal land planning, those showing grid land planning like Centuria in Roman Empire, Jori Plan in 8-9th century Japan and Townships in British American colonies and later US and Canada. Those large/middle scale maps usually express various land units within each grid in spite of a land itself usually stretched continuously. Old maps are very important as primary source materials for historical geography, but researchers should consider the nature of old maps. They are commonly without accurate scale, physical situation and standard for drawing and describing. And furthermore, many old maps were made under the thought or regulation for land planning, when those are used as source materials.
Nature of Old Maps: As Primary Source Materials for Historical Geography, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2018, pp. 260-267.
P. Whitfield (1994) The Image of the World: 20 centuries of world maps, pp. 8-11, The British Library J. Fujii, M. Sugiyama and A. Kinda, (eds., 2007) Portrait of the Earth, pp. 29-53, Kyoto University Press.
J. Black (2003) Visions of the World: A history of maps, pp. 31-37, Mitchell Beazley (London).
Whitfield op. cit., , pp. 20-21 Fujii, Sugiyama and Kinda, op. cit. , pp. 54-83.
N. Muroga (1983) Essays on Old Maps, pp. - Tokai University Press (Kanagawa).
J. B. Harley and D. Woodward (eds., 1987-1998) The History of Cartography, 2 Vols. (4 books), University of Chicago Press Whitfield op. cit., , pp. 22-23 Black, op. cit.  pp. 34-37 Fujii, Sugiyama and Kinda, op. cit. .
Fujii, Sugiyama and Kinda, op. cit. , pp. 54-69.
Whitfield op. cit.,  Harley and Woodward, op. cit. .
A. Hunakoshi (1970) On the international map on the Earth by Matteo Ricchi, Journal of Oriental Studies 41 (Kyoto University) A. Kinda and K. Uesugi (2012) History of Cartography in Japan, Yoshikawa Kobunkan (Tokyo).
T. Perry (1982) The Discovery of Australia; The charts and Maps of the navigators and explorers, Melbourne University Press R. Crancy (1995) The Mapping of Terra Australis, pp. 104-119, Universal Press (New South Wales).
A. Hunakoshi (1986) A Study of Kangxi Map coming to isolated Japan, Hosei University Press (Tokyo) A. Kinda (2008) Looks at Lands, pp. 114-143, Shibunkaku Shuppan (Kyoto).
A. Kinda (ed., 2010) A Landscape History of Japan, pp. 115-135, Kyoto University Press A. Kinda (2018), Land Planning of Ancient State, pp. 94-103, Yoshikawa Kobunkan (Tokyo).
M. E. Bellet (1991) Orange Antique; Monuments et musie, Imprimerie nationale A. Kinda (1998) Ancient Manorial Maps and Landscape, pp. 334-342, The Tokyo University Press.
P. D. A. Harvey (1993) Maps in Tudor England, pp. 7-25, The Public Record Office and The British Library.
A. Paolucci (2011) The Gallery of Maps, Edizioni Musei Vaticani (Vatican).
E. A. Gutkind (1964) International History of City Development, 6 Vols., Free Press of Glencoe (New York).
J. W. Reps (1965) The Making of Urban America, A history of city planning in the United States, Princeton University Press J. W. Reps (1979) Cities of the American West, A history of frontier urban planning, Princeton University Press.
W. D. Pattison (1975) Beginnings of the American Rectangular Land Survey System, 1784-1800, The University of Chicago Press E. T. Price (1995) Dividing the Land; Early American beginnings of our private property mosaic, The University of Chicago Press A. Kinda (2001) The concept of ‘townships’ in Britain and the British colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Journal of Historical Geography, 27-2.
C. A. White (no date) A History of the Rectangular Survey System, US Government Printing Office N. J. W. Thrower (1966) Original Survey and Land Subdivision; A comparative study of the form and effect of contrasting cadastral surveys, Rand McNally & Company (Chicago) Kinda, op. cit.,  A. Kinda (2015) Township: Diffusion and transformation, pp. 95-117, 135-207, Nakanishiya Shuppan (Kyoto).
e.g. A. Kinda (2017) Towns and Villages on Old Maps, Keibunsha (Tokyo) Kinda, op. cit.,  and [11(2010)].
A. Meitzen (1895) Siedlung und Agrarwesen der Westgermanen und Ostgermanen, der Kelten, Ro”mer, Finnen und Slawen, Berlin.
A. Kinda (1985) A Study on Historical Geography of the Jori Plan and Settlements, pp. 397-443, Taimeido (Tokyo) Kinda, op. cit., , pp. 131-133.
A. R. H. Baker (1968) A note on the retrospective and retrogressive approaches in historical geography, Erdkunde, 22 A. Kinda (2002) Quest for Ancient Landscape History, pp. 1-42, Yoshikawa Kobunkan (Tokyo).
A. R. H. Baker and R. A. Butlin (eds., 1973) Studies in Field Systems in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press Kinda, op. cit., .