Cancer Research Journal
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 51-61
Received: Dec. 31, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 5, 2018;
Published: Mar. 27, 2018
Views 1347 Downloads 44
Adeleke G. E., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Adedosu O. T., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Oyewo E. B., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Fatoki J. O., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Abioye D. H., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Ishola A. A., Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Maduagwu E. N., Department of Biological Sciences, Biochemistry Unit, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
This study investigated the nitrosating activities of intact cells and cell fractions of Bacillus cereus isolated from fermented palm wine (Elaeis guineensis) during incubation with dimethylamine and nitrite or nitrate. The pH values of the incubation mixtures were 7.2 ± 0.07 and 7.1 ± 0.07 in the presence of nitrite and nitrate, respectively. The N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) level in cell debris was significantly higher compared with cell extract, cell suspension and sterile controls. The time-course of NDMA formation in cell debris showed a significant (p < 0.05) early decline followed by an increase. The kinetic data obtained from Lineweaver-Burk plots of NDMA formation showed that Michaelis -Menten constant (Km) value was 37.5% lower, while initial velocity (Vmax) was 20.0% higher in cell debris relative to cell extract, when a fixed DMA concentration was used against varying nitrite concentrations. However, at a fixed nitrite concentration against varying DMA concentration, Km value was 44.4% lower, while Vmax was 166.7% higher in cell debris compared with cell extract. Investigation of nitrosation mechanism showed that Vmax values in the cell debris were 41.7, 50.0 and 55.6 μmol NDMA/mg protein, while the values were 34.5, 37.0 and 43.5 μmol NDMA/mg protein in cell extract for the respective three nitrite concentrations. This study has shown that intact Bacillus cereus cells catalyzed nitrosation of dimethylamine at near neutral pH, and the nitrosation, which was higher in cell debris than cell extract of the bacterium, followed a sequential mechanism of enzyme catalysis.
Adeleke G. E.,
Adedosu O. T.,
Oyewo E. B.,
Fatoki J. O.,
Abioye D. H.,
Ishola A. A.,
Maduagwu E. N.,
N-Nitrosation of Dimethylamine by Bacillus cereus Isolated from Fermented Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis), Cancer Research Journal.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2018, pp. 51-61.
Uzogara SG, Agu LN, Uzogara EO (1990) A review of traditional fermented food condiments and beverages in Nigeria. Their benefits and possible problems. Ecol. Food Nutrient. 24: 267-288.
Uzochukwuru BUA, Balogh FE, Ngoddy PD (1991) Standard pure culture inoculum of natural fermented palm sap. Nig. J. Microbiol. 9: 67-77.
Okafor N (1987) Palm wine yeast from parts of Nigeria. J. of Sci Food Agric. 23: 1399-1407.
Faparusi SI and Basir O. (1991) Factors affecting the qualities of palm wine. W. Afr. J. Biol. Appl. Chem. 15: 18-28.
Ogbulie TE, Ogbulie JN, Njoku HO (2007) Comparative study on the microbiology and shelf life stability of palm wine from Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri obtained from Okigwe, Nigeria. African journal of Biotechnol. 6 (7): 914-922.
Ehrmann MA, Freidling S, Vogel RF (2009) Leuconostoc palmae spp. nov: A novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from palm wine. Int J. Syst Evol Microbiol. 59: 943-947.
Olawale AK, Akintobi AO, David MO. (2010) Evaluation of microbial quality and Alcoholic improvement of natural and fermented Raphia palm wine (0goro). New York Science Journal. 3, 2.
Adeleke GE, Akpabio CJ, Oyewo EB, Maduagwu EN (2015) Acetobacter aceti isolated from fermented palm wine in the South west region of Nigeria elucidated high nitrosamine production in the presence of nitrite. J. Toxicol and Health. 106: 494-502.
Montville TJ and Matthews KR (2005) Food Microbiology: An Introduction. ASM Press, Washington D. C.
Jensen GB, Hansen BM, Eilenberg J, Mahillon J (2003) The hidden lifestyles of Bacillus ceresus and relatives. Environmental microbiology, 5: 631-640.
Vilain S, Luo Y, Hildreth M, Brözel V (2006) Analysis of the life cycle of the soil saprophyte Bacillus cereus in liquid soil extract and in soil. Appl and Env Microbiol. 72:4970–4977.
Wijnands LM, Dufrenne JB, Zwietering MH, van Leusden FM (2006) Spores from mesophilic Bacillus cereus strains germinate better and grow faster in simulated gastro- intestinal conditions than spores from psychrotrophic strains. International Journal of Food Microbiology 112 (2):120–128.
Mols M, Pier I, Zwietering MH, Abee TI (2009) The impact of oxygen availability on stress survival and radical formation of Bacillus cereus. International Journal of Food Microbiology 135 (3):303–311.
Maduagwu EN, Joaqium KA, Bassir OO (1979) Microbial nitrosamine formation in palm wine: In vitro N-nitrosation by cell suspensions. J. Environ Pathol Toxicol. 2 (4): 1183-1194.
Smith NA., Smith P, Woodruff CA (1992) The role of Bacillus spp. in N-nitrosamine formation during wort production. J. Inst. Brew. 98: 409-414.
Jang CM, Heinze TM, Deck J, Strakosha R, Sutherland JB (2008) Transformation of N-Phenylpiperazine by mixed cultures from a Municipal wastewater treatment plant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74 (19): 6147-6150.
Atawodi SE (2003) Occurrence of preformed volatile nitrosamines in preparations of some Nigerian medicinal plants: a preliminary report. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (4): 551-554.
Ayanaba A and Alexander M (1973) Microbial formation of Nitrosamines In Vitro. Appl. Microbiol. 25 (6) pp 862-863.
Jakszyn P and Gonzalez CA (2006) Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. World J. Gastroenterol. 12: 4296-4303.
Boffeta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. (2008) Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 9: 667-675.
Suzuki S and Mitsuoka T (1984) N-nitrosamine formation by bacteria of the intestine. In N-nitroso compounds: Occurrence, Biological Effects and Relevance to Human Cancer (IARC Scientific Publications no. 57), pp. 275-281. Editted by IO O’Neill, RC von Borstel, JE Long, CT Miller and H Bartsch. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Calmels S, Ohshia A, Bartsch H (1988) Nitrosamine formation by Denitrifying and Non-denitrifying bacteria: Implication of nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase in nitrosation catalysis. J. of Gen. Microbiol. 134: 221-226.
Joaqium K. (1973) Nitrosamine contamination of some Nigerian beverages. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Cheesbrough M (1994) Medical laboratory manual for Tropical country volume 11: Microbiology. Butterworth,, Heinemann Ltd. Cambridge. Pp. 56-58.
Cruikshank R, Duiguid PJ, Mamon PC, Schwinghamer L (1982) Medical Microbiology. The practice of medical Microbiology. Churchhill living stone. Edinburgh. pp 587.
Njoku HO, Ogbulie JN, Nnubia O (1990) Microbial Ecology of traditional fermentation of African oil bean seed for Ugba production. J. of Food Microbiol. 3: 18-28.
Kunisaki N and Hayashi M (1979) Formation of secondary amines and nitrite by resting cells of Escherichia coli B. Appl. and Environ. Microbiol. 37 (1). 279- 282.
Venturin C, Zulaika J, Boze H, Moulin GP (1995) Purification and properties of an Alcohol dehydrogenase (HUADHII) from Hanseniasipora uvarum K5. J. of Appl Bacteriol. 79. 79-86.
Mongomery HAC. and Dymock JF (1962) The determination of nitrite in water. Analyst 86: 4141-416.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
Fermanian C, Lapeyre C, Fremy J, Claisse M (1997) Diarrhoeal toxin production at low temperatures by selected strains of Bacillus cereus. Journal of Dairy Research 64: 551–559.
Finlay WJJ, Logan NA, Sutherland AD (2000) Bacillus cereus produces most emetic toxin at lower temperatures. Letters in Applied Microbiology 31:385–389.
Shukor MY, Gusmanizar N, Azmi NA, Hamid M, Ramli J, et al. (2009) Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading Bacillus cereus. J. Environ Biol. 30 (1): 57-64.
Mills AL and Alexander M (1976) N-Nitrosamine formation by cultures of several microorganisms. Appl. And Environ. Microbiol. 31 (6): 892-895.
Kunisaki N, Matsuuru H, Hayashi M (1976) Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine by Escherichia coli. (In Japanese) J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn. 17: 314-319.
Fournier D, Hawari J, Halasz A, Streger SH, McClay KR, et al. (2009) Aerobic Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine by the Propanotroph rhodococcus ruber ENV425. Appl and Environ Microbiol. 75 (15). 5088-5093.
Ohhata N, Yoshida N, Egami H, Katsuragi T, Tani Y, et al. (2007) An extremely oligotrophic bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4 isolated from crude oil. J. of Bacteriol., 189: 6824-6831.
United State Environmental Protection Agency (2006). USEPA, an integrated risk information system for N-nitrosodimethylamine (CASRN 62-75-9).
Garber E and Hollocher T (1982) 15N, 18O tracer studies on the activation of nitrite by denitrifying bacteria. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 257, 8091-8097.
Bedzyk L, Wang T, Ye RW (1999) The periplasmic nitrate reductase in Pseudomonas species strain G-179 catalyzes the first step of Denitrification. J. Bacteriol. 181:2802-2806.
Miler JH (1972) Experiments in molecular genetics. P354. Cold spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Cleland WW (1963a) The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with two or more substrates or products I. Nomenclature and rate reactions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 67:104-137.
Cleland WW (1963b) The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with two or more substrates or products II. Inhibition, nomenclature and theory. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 67: 173-187.
Palmer T (2004) Enzymes: Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Clinical Chemistry. Affliated East-West Press Pvt Limited, New Delhi.