Cancer Research Journal
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 106-114
Received: Nov. 30, 2016;
Accepted: Dec. 10, 2016;
Published: Jan. 9, 2017
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Shakeria Cohen, Department of Internal Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Sharifeh Mehrabi, Department of Internal Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Xuebiao Yao, Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Stephanie Millingen, Department of Internal Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Felix O. Aikhionbare, Department of Internal Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is usually diagnosed at late stage and stage-adjusted five year survival rate is low. Mortality is relatively heavy on African-Americans/Black (AA) affected with SOC compared to their Caucasian counterparts, though the cause for the disparity remains unclear. DNA damage induced by oxidative stress has been linked to ovarian cancer, but the role of oxidative stress in distinguishing differences in aggressive SOC tumors among patients is yet to be determined. This study aims to determine the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive carbonyl groups and antioxidants in primary SOC normal, precancerous (cystadenoma, borderline) and invasive (III/IV) tissue samples obtained from AA and Caucasian subgroups. Additionally, the study seeks to investigate significant changes in the level of ROS between AA and Caucasian SOC samples. A fluorogenic probe, dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH-DiOxyQ), was used to scavenge reactive oxygen species in SOC normal, precancerous and malignant stages III/IV tissue samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and reactive carbonyl groups were measured as indicators of oxidative injury. Moreover, antioxidant status was assessed by estimating glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) enzyme levels. Results indicate ROS concentration was approximately 96% higher in the malignant tissues in comparative to the normal non-diseased controls. In addition, ROS concentration among AA women was approximately 9% higher than Caucasian women. MDA levels increased exponentially from non-disease control and precancerous tissues relative to malignant tissues. Furthermore, malignant serous ovarian samples showed significantly higher reactive carbonyl content compared to the non-disease controls (p=0.009), while GPX3 levels decreased considerably in serous cystadenoma and malignant tissue samples, and non-diseased control compared to borderline disease. The results suggest accumulation of ROS and MDA levels may be a causative factor for SOC. Elevated levels of MDA and reactive carbonyl proteins could override the GPX3 enzyme capacity therefore, initiating serous ovarian neoplasm.
Felix O. Aikhionbare,
Reactive Oxygen Species and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Adenocarcinoma, Cancer Research Journal.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 106-114.
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