Cultural and Environmental Factors of Triple-Negative Breast Carcinomas
Cancer Research Journal
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 18-28
Received: Feb. 11, 2014; Published: Mar. 10, 2014
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Mackenzie Whitesell, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Sarah Al-Najar, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Gillian Bowser, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA; Department of Ethnic Studies, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Mark A. Brown, Department of Ethnic Studies, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA; Colorado School of Public Health, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
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Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the world. The triple-negative breast cancer subtype is associated with poorer prognosis than hormone receptor-positive subtypes and is more prevalent among African Americans than white, European Americans. The goal of this study has been to elucidate environmental, hormonal, and cultural factors that may be contributing to this disparity in an effort to identify modifiable risk factors and improve triple-negative breast cancer outcomes. Factors that may impact risk include vitamin D defiency, hormonal factors, environmental and dietary exposure, radiation exposure, and obesity. These factors may disproportionately affect African American women as a result of socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and cultural norms. Furthermore, disparities in prognosis may be compounded by barriers such as access to healthcare, prevention education, and perceptions of healthcare. Both biological and sociocultural factors impacting risk must be addressed in order for future prevention and treatment efforts to succeed.
Health Disparity, Triple-negative Breast Cancer, Cultural Factors, Environmental Factors
To cite this article
Mackenzie Whitesell, Sarah Al-Najar, Gillian Bowser, Mark A. Brown, Cultural and Environmental Factors of Triple-Negative Breast Carcinomas, Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 18-28. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20140202.12
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