The Sonographic Dimensions of the Liver at Normal Subjects Compared to Patients with Malaria
International Journal of Medical Imaging
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 130-136
Received: Oct. 17, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 10, 2015;
Published: Nov. 24, 2015
Views 18347 Downloads 216
Moawia Gameraddin, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum Bahri, Sudan; Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, College of Medical Applied Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Saudi Arabia
Amir Ali, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum Bahri, Sudan
Mosleh Al-radaddi, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Madina Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia
Mohaned Haleeb, Madani Military Hospital, Madani City, Gezira State, Sudan
Sultan Alshoabi, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum Bahri, Sudan
Determination of the liver size with ultrasound is an important process in patients with Malaria compared with the normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the measurements of liver size by ultrasonography in patients with malaria compared with healthy Sudanese subjects in order to detect extend of liver enlargement. That is many tropical diseases which affect the liver size. The study population composed of 145 cases that had been selected to satisfy the study. They were 105 normal subjects (65 males 40 females) and 40 patients with Malaria from Capital Khartoum were undergone ultrasound examination of the liver. The normal subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their ages (5-102 years). The anteroposterior and craniocaudal dimensions in addition to liver span of the liver with its right and left lobes were measured using the routine ultrasonography and the mean values were recorded. Data was analyzed using statistical software program. There was highly significant difference of mean liver span of normal subjects and patients with Malaria (12.86 vs. 14.272, p-value= 0.000). The mean craniocaudal diameters of the right and left liver lobes were 11.932 ± 2.02 cm and 9.042 ± 2.09 cm for normal subjects and Malaria patients respectively. Highly significant difference existed between anterioposterior diameters of right lobes between the normal subjects and patients with Malaria (12.495 vs. 13.303, p-value= 0.000) There was no significant difference in anteroposterior and craniocaudal dimensions of the left lobe between the normal subjects and patients with Malaria (5.025cm vs. 5.020cm, p-value= 0.938 and 9.079cm vs. 9.042cm, p-value= 0.903). Height was found to have significant correlation for the liver span followed by weight in the normal subjects. Malaria might not have impact on the size of the left lobe. The study concluded that ultrasound is an effective imaging tool and provides valuable data of volumetric analysis of the liver and its lobes in normal subjects and patients with Malaria which is of importance in the daily practice in radiology clinics since it was helpful in diagnosis of hepatomegaly.
The Sonographic Dimensions of the Liver at Normal Subjects Compared to Patients with Malaria, International Journal of Medical Imaging.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 130-136.
Harlod E. Clinical Anatomy. Oxford: Blackwell publishing; 2006; pp.93-94. ed on 9-1-2015.
Gyton AC., Hall JE. Textbook of Medical physiology Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2006; 859
Douglas C. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Evaluation of the Size, Shape, and Consistency of the Liver. Available from.
Bisset RA., Khan AN. Differential Diagnosis in Abdominal Ultrasound. London: W.B Saunders; 2000; pp.34.
Jane A. Bates. Abdominal ultrasound How, Why and When 2nd ed. London: Elsevier limited. 2004; pp. 155-70.
Niederau C, Sonnenberg A, J E Muller et al. Sonographic measurement of the normal liver, spleen, pancreas and portal vein. Radiology. 1983; 149: 537-540.
Marco P, Vincenzo M, Rosanna C, et al. Measurement of spleen volume by ultrasound scanning in patients with thromboocytosis: A prospective study. Blood J. 2002; 99 (11): 4228-4230.
Zhang B, Lewis S. A study of the reliability of clinical palpation of the spleen. Clin Lab Haematol. 1989; (11): 7-10.
Joshi R, Singh A, Jajoo N, et al. Accuracy and reliability of palpation and percussion for detecting hepatomegaly: A rural hospital based study. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2004; 23: 171-174.
Mahgoub H, Gasim G I, Musa IR, Adam I: Severe Plasmodium Vivax Malaria among Sudanese Children at New Half Hospital, Eastern Sudan. Parasite Vectors. 2012; (5): 154.
WHO. The health of the people: The African Regional Health Report 2006. Geneva, Swizerland: World Health Organization.
Anstey NM, Price RN. Improving Case definitions for severe Malaria. Plos Med. 2007; 4: 91-92.
Sowunmi A. Hepatomegaly in acute falciparum malaria in children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.1996; (90): 540-542.
Elstein D, Hadas H, Azuri Y, et al. Accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing spleen and liver size in patients with Gaucher disease: comparison to computed tomography measurements. J ultrasound Med. 1997; (16): 209-211.
Anderson NG, Notely E, Graham P, McEwing R. Reproducibility of sonographic assessment of fetal liver length Diabetic pregnancies. Ultrasound obstet Gynecol. 2008; (31): 529-531.
Liver span, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_span Accessed 8 January 2015.
Alp A, Enver S, Talat B. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits and percentile curves of liver, spleen, and kidney dimensions in healthy school-aged children. J Ultrasound Med.2005; (24): 1359-1364.
18. Sienz M, Ignee A, Dietrich C, et al. Reference values in abdominal ultrasound—liver and liver vessels in German. Z Gastroenterol. 2010; 48: 1141-1148.
Niederau C, Sonnenberg A, Fritsch W, et al. Determination of liver size in clinical routine. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1983; 108:1599-1601.
Rosenfield A, Laufer I, Schneider P. The significance of a palpable liver. A correlation of clinical and radioisotope studies. Am J Roentg, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Med.1974; 122: 313-7.
Patzak M, Pronzner M, Oeztuerk S, et al. Assessment of liver size by ultrasonography. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 2014; 7: 42
Kratzer W, Fritz V, Mason RA, et al. Roemerstein. Study group: factors affecting liver size: A sonographic survey of 2080 subjects. J. Ultrasound Med. 2003; 22: 1155-1161.
Mittal R, Chowdhary D. A pilot Study of normal measurement of the liver and spleen by ultrasonogtaphy in the Rajasthani population. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2010; 4: 2733-2736.
Dhingra B, Sharma S, Mishra D, et al. Normal Values of Liver and Spleen Size by Ultrasonography in Indian children. Indian Pediatrics. 2010; 47: 487-492.
Balch H, Admassi D. Normal liver size measurement in Ethiopian children below thirteen years of age, Black lion hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethio Med J. 2012; 50: 153-158.
Da Silva R, Perrira R, Siqueira M, et al. Correlation between clinical evaluation of liver size versus ultrasonography evaluation according to body mass index (BMI) and biotypes. Rev Med Chile. 2010; 138: 1495-1501.
Castell D, O’Brien K, Muench H, et al. Estimation of liver size by percussion in normal individuals. Ann Int Med. 1969; 70: 1183-1189.
Konus Ö, Özdemir A, Akkaya A, et al. Normal liver, spleen, and kidney dimensions in neonates, infants, and children: evaluation with sonography. Am J Roentg. 1998; 171: 1693-1698.
Yuanting Z, Michelle Z, Anjali H,et al. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Malaria: Examination of the spleen, liver and Optic nerve sheath diameter. World J Emerg Med. 2015; 6: 13-14.
Eun M, Hyeon Je, chong R et al. Abdominal Copmputed tomography Findings of Malaria infection with Plasmodium vivax. Amj Trop med. 2010; 83: 1202-1205.
Zeeh J, Platt D. The aging liver: structural and functional changes and their consequences for drug treatment in old age. Gerontology. 2002; 48: 121.
Chouker A, Martignoni A, Dugas M, et al. Estimation of liver size for liver transplantation: the impact of age and gender. Liver Transpl. 2004; 10: 678.
Urata K, Kawasaki S, Matsunami H, et al. Calculation of child and adult standard liver volume for liver transplantation. Hepatology. 1995; 21: 1317.
Udoaka A, Enyi C, Agi C, et al. Sononlogical evaluation of the liver, spleen and kidneys in an adult Southern Nigerian population. Asian journal of medical and applied sciences. 2013; 5: 33-36.