A Review of the Incidence of Head Injuries in Football, Baseball, Ice Hockey, and Cycling
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Nov. 24, 2018;
Accepted: Dec. 14, 2018;
Published: Jan. 19, 2019
Views 157 Downloads 66
Joyce A. Shaw, Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Endicott College, Beverly, US
Brayden Nielsen, Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Endicott College, Beverly, US
Head injuries in sports have merited greater attention from professionals, the media, and the general public in recent years. The purpose of this research was to conduct a review of articles that focus on the incidence of head injuries in football, baseball, ice hockey, and cycling. Twenty three studies were identified for inclusion because they contained quantitative data on the number or percentage of head injuries in those four sports. A table was created comparing the data by: sport, research design, level of play, and number of head injuries. Analysis of the data showed that the most studied sport was ice hockey, the most studied level of play was the professional level, and the most used study designs were case studies and emergency department surveillance. Some studies included implementation of prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of head injuries. The most common prevention strategies were rule changes and better equipment. Future studies will help determine the most successful prevention strategies that can be implemented in each sport to further reduce the incidence of head injury in sports.
Joyce A. Shaw,
A Review of the Incidence of Head Injuries in Football, Baseball, Ice Hockey, and Cycling, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
Berkowitz. Judge oks $75M class-action concussions settlement against NCAA. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/ncaaf/2016/07/14/college-football-concussions-lawsuit-ncaa/87097982/ Published July 14, 2016. Accessed August 6, 2018.
NFL, ex-players agree to $765M settlement in concussions suit. NFL.com. http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap1000000235494/article/nfl-explayers-agree-to-765m-settlement-in-concussions-suit. Accessed August 6, 2018.
Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Leclerc S, Johnston KM. Concussions Among University Football and Soccer Players: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2002;12(6):331-338. doi:10.1097/00042752-200211000-00003
McFaull S, Subaskaran J, Branchard B, Thompson W. Emergency department surveillance of injuries and head injuries associated with baseball, football, soccer and ice hockey, children and youth, ages 5 to 18 years, 2004 to 2014. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada. 2016;36(1):13-14.
Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. Concussions Among United States High School and Collegiate Athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495-503.
Deits J, Yard EE, Collins CL, Fields SK, Comstock RD. Patients With Ice Hockey Injuries Presenting to US Emergency Departments, 1990–2006. J Athl Train. 2010;45(5):467-474. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-45.5.467.
Tuominen M, Stuart MJ, Aubry M, Kannus P, Parkkari J. Injuries in men’s international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;49(1):30. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093688.
Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries Related to Sports and Recreation Activities Among Persons Aged ≤19 Years — United States, 2001–2009 . Center for Disease Control Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011;60(39). https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6039.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2018.
McIntosh AS. Preventing head and neck injury. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005;39(6):314-318. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.018200.
Gaw CE, Zonfrillo MR. Emergency department visits for head trauma in the United States. BMC Emergency Medicine. 2016;16. doi:10.1186/s12873-016-0071-8.
Sports-related head injury. Sports-related Head Injury. AANS. http://www.aans.org/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Sports-related-Head-Injury. Accessed January 8, 2018.
Facial Protection and the Incidence of Head, Neck, and Facial Injuries in Junior a Hockey Players: A Function of Individual Playing Time . The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2002;30(1):39-44. doi:10.1177/03635465020300012001.
Marshall SW. Evaluation of Safety Balls and Faceguards for Prevention of Injuries in Youth Baseball. JAMA. 2003;289(5):568. doi:10.1001/jama.289.5.568.
Michael PD, Davenport DL, Draus JM. Bicycle helmets save more than heads: experience from a pediatric level I trauma hospital. The American Surgeon. 2017;83(9):1007-1011.
Major League Baseball and Major League Baseball Players Association announce new protocols on concussions. http://mlb.mlb.com/content/printer_friendly/mlb/y2011/m03/d29/c17181944.jsp. Accessed August 6, 2018.
Stricter rules on head hits believed to be paying off. NHL.com. https://www.nhl.com/news/stricter-rules-on-head-hits-believed-to-be-paying-off/c-621877. Accessed August 6, 2018.
New NFL rules designed to limit head injuries. NFL.com. http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d81990bdf/article/new-nfl-rules-designed-to-limit-head-injuries. Accessed August 6, 2018.
Krolikowski MP, Black AM, Palacios-Derflingher L, Blake TA, Schneider KJ, Emery CA. The Effect of the “Zero Tolerance for Head Contact” Rule Change on the Risk of Concussions in Youth Ice Hockey Players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;45(2):468-473. doi:10.1177/0363546516669701.
Dennis J, Ramsay T, Turgeon AF, Zarychanski R. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis. The BMJ. 2013;346. doi:10.1136/bmj.f2674.
Topolovec-Vranic J, Zhang S, Wong H, et al. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement. PLoS One. 2015;10(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141699 Additional References for Table 1 and Table 2 and Table 3.
Kruth C. 2011. MLB, union adopt universal concussion policy. MLB.com. Available from: http://m.mlb.com/news/article/17183370/.
Kelly KD, Lissel HL, Rowe BH, Vincenten JA, Voaklander DC. 2001. Sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in the emergency department. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 11(2): 77-81. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Abstract/2001/04000/Sport_and_Recreation_Related_Head_Injuries_Treated.3.aspx.
Weislo L. 2011. Pro cycling plagued by head injuries. Cycling News. Available from: http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/pro-cycling-plagued-by-head-injuries/.
Meeuwisse WH, Hagel BE, Mohtadi NGH, Butterwick DJ, Fick GH. The Distribution of Injuries in Men’s Canada West University Football: A 5-year Analysis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000;28(4):516-523. doi:10.1177/03635465000280041201.
NFL. 2010. New NFL rules designed to limit head injuries. NFL.com. Available from: http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d81990bdf/article/new-nfl-rules-designed-to-limit-head-injuries.
NFL Head, Neck and Spine Committee’s Concussion Diagnosis and Management Protocol. NFL Play Smart, Play Safe. https://www.playsmartplaysafe.com/focus-on-safety/protecting-players/nfl-head-neck-spine-committees-protocols-regarding-diagnosis-management-concussion/. Accessed August 7, 2018.
NHL updates concussion protocol. NHL.com. https://www.nhl.com/news/nhl-updates-concussion-protocol/c-282571624. Accessed August 7, 2018.
Roarke SP. 2012. Stricter rules on head hits believed to be paying off. NHL.com. Available from: https://www.nhl.com/news/stricter-rules-on-head-hits-believed-to-be-paying-off/c-621877.
Kerr ZY, Roos KG, Djoko A, et al. Epidemiologic Measures for Quantifying the Incidence of Concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017;52(3):167-174.doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.6.05.
Simmons MM, Swedler DI, Kerr ZY. Injury Surveillance of Head, Neck, and Facial Injuries in Collegiate Ice Hockey Players, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014 Academic Years. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017;52(8):776-784. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-52.4.03.