Complementary Foods from Rice and Six Other Ghanaian Food Ingredients Provide Sufficient Macro and Micronutrients for Infants 6-12 Mo of Age
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 79-85
Received: Mar. 14, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 30, 2017; Published: Apr. 17, 2017
Views 1594      Downloads 80
Ruth Adisetu Pobee, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA; CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana
Hannah Oduro-Obeng, CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana
Paa-Nii Torgbor Johnson, Department of Agroprocessing Technology and Food Biosciences, CSIR-College of Science and Technology, Accra, Ghana; P. N. J Partners Limited, Adabraka, Ghana
Paa Toah Akonor, CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Food base approach is considered to be a more viable and sustainable method of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. A study to develop suitable micronutrient-rich complementary infant foods was carried out and characterized using rice (Oryza sativa, var. Togo Marshal) and six other Ghanaian food ingredients; soybean (Glycine Max var. Afayak), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, var. Bengpla), mango (Magnefera indica, var. Kent), red palm (Elaesis guineensis. var. Dura) oil, groundnut (Arachis hypogea, var. Otuhia) and eggs. The complementary foods were initially developed from six blends, LR-1 (70% rice, 20% soybean, 5% groundnut, 5% dried mango), LR-2 (70% rice, 20% soybean, 5% groundnut, 5% egg yolk), LR-3 (70% rice, 20% soybean, 5% cowpea, 5% dried mango), LR-4 (65% rice, 25% soybean, 5% palm oil, 5% egg yolk), LR-5 (70% rice, 20% cowpea, 5% groundnut, 5% egg yolk), LR-6 (70% rice, 25% soybean, 5% dried mango). Sensory evaluation of these initial blends was conducted and the three most preferred blends were selected for further acceptability studies as well as the nutritional analyses using standard methods. The most desirable product based on sensory attributes was the formulation containing mango flour and soybeans (LR-6) followed by formulation containing soybean, groundnut and mango (LR-1). However there were no significant differences ( p = 0.05) observed among the overall acceptability of the three best formulated products (LR-6, LR-1, LR-4). LR-4 had the highest amount of energy (427.6Kcal/100g), protein (15.82g/100g), fat (12.2g/100g), beta-carotene (5106.7 µg/100g) and iron (6.6mg/100g). LR-6 came out as the most preferred weaning food based on sensory evaluation. This study revealed the potential of using local ingredients including rice to produce micronutrient-rich complementary infant foods in developing countries. This will be of tremendous help to the less endowed households where the problem of infant malnutrition is most rife.
Infant Complementary Foods, Ghanaian Local Foods, Vitamin A, Iron, Micronutrient
To cite this article
Ruth Adisetu Pobee, Hannah Oduro-Obeng, Paa-Nii Torgbor Johnson, Paa Toah Akonor, Complementary Foods from Rice and Six Other Ghanaian Food Ingredients Provide Sufficient Macro and Micronutrients for Infants 6-12 Mo of Age, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 79-85. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20170503.14
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Low JW, Arimond M, Osman N, Cunguara B, Zano F, Tschirley D (2007). A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased Vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique. J. Nutr. 137: 1320-1327.
Tontisirin K, Nantel G, Bhattacharjee L (2002). Food –based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61: 243-250.
Johns T and Sthapit BR (2004). Biocultural diversity in the sustainability of developing-country foods systems. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 25:143-155.
Johns T (2003). Plant biodiversity and malnutrition: Simple solutions to complex problems. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 3(1): 45-52.
Mahmoud AH and El Anany AM (2014). Nutritional and sensory evaluation of a complementary food formulated from rice, faba beans, sweet potato flour and peanut oil. Food Nutr Bull. 35(4):403-13.
Amissah JGN, Ellis WO, Oduro I, Manful JT (2003). Nutrient composition of bran from new rice varieties under study in Ghana. Food Control. 14 (1): 21-24.
Carlier C, Etchepare M, Ceccon JF, Mourey M, Amedee-Manesme O (1992). Efficacy of massive oral doses of retinyl palmitate and mango (Mangifera indica L.) consumption to correct an existing vitamin A deficiency in Senegalese children. Br J Nutr. 68(2): 529-40.
Litz ER (2009). The Mango Botany, Production and Uses. 2nd edtion. MPG Book Group Bodmin, pp 488.
Nimalaratne C, Wu J, Schieber A. (2013). Egg Yolk Carotenoids: Composition, Analysis, and Effects of Processing on their Stability: In Carotenoid Cleavage Products 18: 219-225.
Mattila PH. (2015). Enrichment of hen eggs with vitamin D for human health:In Watson RR and De Meester (ed). Handbook of eggs in human function 9:167-180.
Kamaruzaman N, Babji, AS, Ismail WRW, Peng FS (2015). Vitamin E Contents and Oxidative Stability of Red Palm Oils Blended Chicken Nuggets during Frozen Storage. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 19(1): 202-212.
Mba OI, Dumont M J, Ngadi M (2015). Palm oil: Processing, characterization and utilization in the food industry–A review. Food Bioscience 10: 26-41.
Zhu C, Cai Y, Gertz E, Lafrano M, Burnett D, Burri B (2015). Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified gari on the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma of women. Nutr Res. earch 35(11):965-974.
Benade AJ (2003). A place for palm fruit oil to eliminate vitamin A deficiency. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12 (3): 369-72.
Mitcham B (2010). Mango Handling and Ripening Protocol, Dept of Plant Science, University of Califorina, Davis.
USAID Peanut Collaborative Research support Program (CRSP) and IUFoST (2012). Processing for Aflatoxin Elimination in Peanut Products (Reduction below Regulation Thresholds). Training Workshop Manual. CSIR-Food Research Institute.
WHO and FAO (2006). “Estimated Average Requirement (calculated values) based on FAO/WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes.” FAO/WHO Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients.
AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Novotny JA, Gebauer SK, Baer DJ (2012). Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 96:296-301.
Imram N (1999). The role of visual cues in consumer perception and acceptance of a food product. Nutrition and Food Science 99:224-228.
Nimoh F, Asuming-Brempong S, Sarpong DB (2012).“Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana”, Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 2(2): 113-119.
Drewnowski A, Mennella JA, Johnson SL, Bellisle F (2012). Sweetness and Food Preference. J. Nutr. 142: 1142S–1148S.
Mennella JA, Bobowski N K, Reed DR (2016). The development of sweet taste: from biology to hedonics. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 17(2): 171-8.
Parker ME, Schroeder DG, Begin F, Hurtado E (1998). Maternal preferences for consistency of complementary foods in Guatamala. Food Nutr. Bull 19:6-12.
Huffman SL and Martin LH (1994). First Feedings: Optimal Feeding of Infants and Toddlers. Nutr. Res.14: 127–59.
Zand N, Chowdhry BZ, Pollard LV, Pullen FS, Snowden MJ, Zotor FB (2015). Commercial ‘ready-to-feed’infant foods in the UK: macro-nutrient content and composition. Maternal & child nutrition 11(2); 202-214.
Heber D (2000). Colourful cancer prevention:α-carotene, lycopene and lung cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 72 (4): 901-2.
Arnao MB, Canoa A, Acosta M (2001). The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution of total antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 73:239-244.
Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD (2004). The role of carotenoids in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 58(2):100-110.
Imoisi OB, IIori GE, Agho I, Ekhator JO (2015). Palm oil, its nutritional and health implications (Review). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 19(1):127 - 133.
FAO/WHO (1998). Preparation and use of Food-based guidelines. Report of a joint FAO/WHO Consultation. WHO technical Report series 880, WHO-Geneva.
Hiraganahalli B, Chinampudur V, Dethe S, Mundkinajeddu D, Pandre M, Balachandran J, Agarwal A (2012). Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Standardized Herbal Extracts. Pharmacogn Mag. 8(30): 116-23.
Pobee RA, Johnson PNT, Akonor PT, Buckman SE (2017). Nutritional, Pasting and Sensory Properties of a weaning food from Rice (Oryza Sativa), Soybeans (Glycine max) and Kent Mango (Mangifera Indica) flour blends. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 17(1):11533-11551.
Chirife J, Zamora MC, Motto A (2006). The correlation between water activity and % moisture in honey: fundamental aspects and application to Argentine honeys. J. Food Engineering 72(3): 287 -292.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931