Production of Artificial Sausage Casings from Whey Proteins
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 30-38
Received: Oct. 5, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 9, 2014; Published: Oct. 17, 2014
Views 3982      Downloads 163
Authors
Bryne Mubururu, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Belvedere, Box BE 277, Harare
Dinga N. Moyo, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Belvedere, Box BE 277, Harare
Perkins Muredzi, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Belvedere, Box BE 277, Harare
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This research and product development work is a contribution to both the Dairy and Meat Industry. The work involved the production of artificial sausage casings from whey proteins. The main objective was to utilize whey, a by-product from cheese production and produce an edible film which can be utilized as an alternative sausage casing material. The work was based on the whey proteins film forming capabilities. The formation of whey protein-based films mainly involved heat denaturation in aqueous solution at 75 -100°C, which produced intermolecular disulfide bonds, which were responsible for film structure. A plasticizer was added to impart flexibility and extensibility of the edible polymeric film. Addition of a cross-linking agent was for the formation of chemical links between molecular chains to form a three-dimensional network of connected molecules. Harvesting of the edible films was done via the casting method.
Keywords
Whey, Whey Protein, Film, Casingscollagen, Cross Linking Agents, Moisture Content
To cite this article
Bryne Mubururu, Dinga N. Moyo, Perkins Muredzi, Production of Artificial Sausage Casings from Whey Proteins, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Special Issue:Optimizing Quality and Food Process Assessment. Vol. 3, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 30-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.s.2014030601.15
References
[1]
All about sausages. (2004). 3Men With Nothing Better to Do. Oct 11, 2013 http://www.3men.com/allyou.htm
[2]
Allen, M. (2010). A Comparison of Analytical Methods for Quantifying Denatured Whey Proteins and Their Correlation to Solubility. California Polytechnic State University.
[3]
Anonymous. (1992). North American demand for degradable plastics. Polym. News. 17:150-153.
[4]
Anonymous. (1993). Biodegradable polymers forge ahead. BioCycle 34(9):72-74.
[5]
Arvanitoyannis IS. (2002). Formation and properties of collagen and gelatin films and coatings. In: Gennadios A. Protein based films and coatings. Boca Ranton, Flordia, USA: CRC Press. p 275–304.
[6]
Aschaffenburg, R. and Drewry, J. (1957) Improved method for the preparation of cystalline beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin from cow's milk, Biochemistry Journal. 65: p. 273-277.
[7]
Banker, G. S. (1966). Film coating theory and practice. Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 55, No.1, pp. 81-89.
[8]
Barreto, P. L. M., Pires, A. T. N., & Soldi, V. (20 03). Thermal degradation of edible films based on milk proteins and gelatin in inert atmosphere. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 79,147-152.
[9]
Cha, D.S., Chinnan, M.S. (2004). Biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44:223-237.
[10]
Cho S,Y and Rhee, C.(2002). Sorption characteristics of soy protein films and their relation to mechanical properties. Lebensmittel-Wissens chaft and Technologie. 35:151-7
[11]
Choi, W.S., Han, J.H. (2001). Physical and mechanical properties of pre-protein-based edible films. J. Food Sci. 66:319-322.
[12]
Chrysina, E.D., Brew, K., Acharya, K.R. (2000). Crystal structures of apo- and holo-bovine α-lactalbumin at 2.2-Å resolution reveal an effect of calcium on inter-lobe interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 275:37021-37029.
[13]
Cisneros-Zevallos, L.; Krochta, J. M. J. (2003). Food Sci., 68:503-510.
[14]
Cuq, B., Gontard, N., Guilbert, S., and Guilbert, S. (1997). Selected functional properties of fish myofibrillar protein-based films as affected by hydrophillic plasticizers. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 45: 622- 626.
[15]
Dalgleish, D. G., Senaratne, V., Francois, S. (1997). Interactions between α–lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in the early stages of heat denaturation. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 45:3459-3464.
[16]
De Wit, J.N. (1998). Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. J. Dairy Sci. 81:597-608.
[17]
Debeaufort, F., Quezada-Gallo, J. A., Voilley, A. (1998). Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 38, 299–313.
[18]
Donhowe, G., Fennema, O. (1994). In Edible coatings and films to improve food quality; Krochta, J. M.; Baldwin, E.A.; Nisperos-Carriedo, M.O.; Ed.; Lancaster: Technomic Publishing, pp 1-24.
[19]
Eigel, W. N., Butler, J. E., Ernstrom, A., Farrell, H.M., Harwalkar, V. R., Jenness, R., Whitney, R.M. (1984). Nomenclature of proteins of cow’s milk: Fifth revision. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1599-1631.
[20]
Fairley, P., F. J. Monahan, J. B. German, and J. M. Krochta. (1996). Mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of edible films from whey protein isolate and N-ethylmaleimide or cysteine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:3789–3792.
[21]
Fang, Y., Tung, M. A ., Britt, I. J., Yada, S., & Dalgleish, D. G. (2002). Tensile and barrier properties of edible films made from whey proteins. Journal of Food Science, 67 ,188 - 193.
[22]
Farrell, H. M., Jimenez-Flores, R., Bleck, G.T., Brown, E. M., Butler, E., Creamer, L.K., Hicks, C.L., Hollar, C.M., Ng- Kwai-Hang, K. F., Swaisgood, H.E. (2004). Nomenclature of the proteins of cows’ milk—Sixth revision. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1641-1674.
[23]
Floros, J.D., Dock, L.L., and Han, J.H. (1997). Active Packaging technologies and applications. Food Cos. Drug Package. 20(1):10-16.
[24]
Forrest, Aberle, Hedrick, Judge and Merkel. (1975). Principles of Meat Science. California: W. H. Freeman and Company. 341p.
[25]
Galietta G., Di-Gioia L., Guilbert S., Cuq B. (1998). Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of films based on whey proteins as affected by plasticizer and crosslinking agents. J. Dairy Sci. 81:3123-3130.
[26]
Gallstedt, M. (2004). “Films and composites based on chitosan, wheat gluten or whey proteins—their packaging related mechanical and barrier properties,” in Fibre and Polymer Technology Department , KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
[27]
Gallstedt, M. (2004).Films and Composites Based on Chitosan, Wheat Gluten or Whey Proteins - Their Packaging Related Mechanical and Barrier Properties, Fibre and Polymer Technology Department, Kth, Sweden.
[28]
Gennadios, A., Hanna, M.A., and Kurth, L.B. (1997). Application of edible coatings on meat, poultry and seafoods: a review. Lenbensm. Wiss. Technol. 30:337-350.
[29]
Gezimati, J., Creamer, L.K., Singh, H. (1997). Heat induced interaction and gelation of mixtures of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 1130-1136.
[30]
Gounga, M. E., Xu, S.-Y., & Wang, Z. (2007). Whey protein isolate-based edible films as affected by protein concentration, glycerol ratio and pullulan addition in film formation. Journal of Food Engineering, 83 ,521-530.
[31]
Guilbert, S. (1986). Technology and application of edible protective films. In: Food packaging and preservation, Theory and Practice, Matholouthi, M., pp. 371-394. Elsevier Applied Science Publishing, ISBN: 0853343772. London
[32]
Harper BA, Barbut S, Lim LT, Marcone MF (2013). Characterization of ‘wet’ alginate and composite films containing gelatin, whey or soy protein. Food Research International 52: 452–459.
[33]
Hambling, S.G., McAlpine, A. S., Sawyer, L. (1992). Beta-Lactoglobulin in Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Proteins, P.F.E. Fox, Editor. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers: London. p. 141-190.
[34]
Havea, P., Singh, H., Creamer, L.(2001). Characterization of heat-induced aggregates of lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin in a whey protein concentrate environment. Journal of Dairy Research,. 68(3): p. 483-497.
[35]
Heine, W.E.P, Klein, P.D., Reeds, P.J. (1991). The importance of α-lactalbumin in infant nutrition. J. Nutr. 121:277-283.
[36]
Herbst, Sharon ,T. (2010). The Cheese Lover’s Companion: The Ultimate A to Z Cheese Guide with More Than 1,000 Listings for Cheeses and Cheese-Related Terms. Harper. Pp 394-397. ISBN 978-0-06-201155-8.
[37]
Hernandez-Izquierdo, V. M., & Krochta, J. M. (2008). Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation - a review. Journal of Food Science, 73 ,30 - 39.
[38]
Hong, S. I and Krochta, J. M. (2004). “Whey protein isolate coating on LDPE film as a novel oxygen barrier in the composite structure,” Packaging Technology and Science, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 13–21.
[39]
Hong, Y. H., Creamer, L.K. (2002). Changed protein structures of bovine β –lactoglobulinβ and α-lactalbumin as a consequence of heat treatment. Int. Dairy J. 12:345-359.
[40]
Jelen, P. (1979). Industrial whey processing technology. An overview. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27:658-661.
[41]
Johansson, T. (2002). Smokeable sausage casing based on polyamide, US Patent 2004/0047951 A1
[42]
Jongh, H .H. J., Gröneveld, T., de Groot, J. (2001). Mild isolation procedure discloses new protein structural properties of β-lactoglobulin. J. Dairy Sci. 84:562-571.
[43]
Kester, J. J., Fennema, O. R. (1986). Edible films and coatings: a review. Food Technol. 40(12):47-59.
[44]
Khwaldia, K., Ferez, C., Banon, S., Desobry, S and Hardy, J (2004). “Milk proteins for edible films and coatings,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol.44, no. 4, pp. 239–251.
[45]
Khwaldia, K., Ferez, C., Banon, S., Desobry, S and Hardy, J. (2004). “Milk proteins for edible films and coatings,”Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 239–251.
[46]
Kim, H. W., Choi, J. H., Choi, Y. S., Kim, H. Y., Hwang, K. E., Song, D. H., Lee, J. W., Kim, C. J. (2012). Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality and shelf stability of emulsion sausage. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 81:580-583.
[47]
Kinsella, J. E. (1984). Milk proteins: physicochemical and functional properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutri. 21: 197-262
[48]
Kinsella, J. E.,and Whitehead, D. M. (1989). Proteins in Whey: Chemical, Physical, and Functional Properties. Adv. Food Nutr. Res.33, 343-438.
[49]
Klinsman, D. M. (1981). Principal Characteristics of Sausage of the World. Connecticut: University of Connecticut. 150p.
[50]
Kotler P, Keller K. (2006). Marketing management. 12th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:Pearson. 729 p.
[51]
Kramlich, W. E., Pearson, A. M and Tauber, F. W. (1973) Processed Meats. Westport: Avi
[52]
Krochta J. M., De Mulder-Johnston C. (1997). Edible and biodegradable polymer films: challenges and opportunities. Food Technol. 51(2):61-74.
[53]
Krochta, J. M. (2002). Proteins as raw materials for films and coatings definitions, current status and opportunities. In: Gennadios A. Protein based films and coatings. 1stEdition. Boca Ranton, Flordia, USA: CRC Press. p 1-42.
[54]
Landau S. (2007). The future of flavor and odor release. In the future of caps and closures—latest innovations and new applications for caps and closures, Intertech-Pira conference. 20–21 June 2007, Atlanta, Ga.
[55]
Livney, Y. D., Verespej, E., Dalgleish, D.G. (2003). Steric effects governing disulfide bond interchange during thermal aggregation in solutions of – β lactoglobulin β and α-lactalbumin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:8098-8106.
[56]
Manoi, K and Rizvi S, S, H. (2009). Emulsification mechanisms and characterizations of cold gel like emulsions. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids. 34:108-38
[57]
Marsh K, Bugusu B. (2007). Food packaging: roles, materials, and environmental issues. J Food Sci 72(3):R39–55.
[58]
McGuffey, M. K., Epting, K. L, Kelly, R. M., Foegeding, E .A. (2005). Denaturation and aggregation of three α-lactalbumin preparations at neutral pH. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:3182-3190.
[59]
McHugh, T. H., and J. M. Krochta. (1994). Sorbitol-vs glycerol-plasticized whey protein edible films: integrated oxygen permeability and tensile property evaluation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:841–845.
[60]
Mezgheni, E., D’Aprano, G., Lacroix, M. (1998). Formation of sterilized edible films based on caseinates: effects of calcium and plasticizers. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 46:318-324.
[61]
Mulvihill, D. M., & Ennis, M. P. (2003). Functional milk proteins: production and utilisation. InFox, P. F., & McSweeney, P. L. H. (Eds.). Advanced dairy chemistry, vol. 1, Part B (pp. 1176-1228). New York: Kluwer.
[62]
Natural Casing Products. (2003).International Natural Sausage Casing Association. Oct 11, 2013). http://www.insca.org/faq/faq6.htm
[63]
Ockerman (1996). Chemistry of Meat Tissue. The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
[64]
Okhlamafe, A.O., York, P. (1984). Effects of solids-polymer interactions on the properties of some aqueous-based tablet film coating formulations. I. Moisture permeability. Int. J. Pharm. 22:265-270.
[65]
Onwulata, C. I. H. and Peter, J. (2008). Whey Processing—Functionality and Health Benefits , vol. 1, Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA.
[66]
Onwulata, C. I., Konstance, R. P., Cooke, P. H.,and Farrell, H. M. (2003)“Functionality of extrusion–texturized whey proteins,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 3775–3782.
[67]
Pearson, A. M and Gillett, T.A. (1996). Processed Meats. New York: Chapman and Hall.
[68]
Petersen, K., Nielsen, P. V., and Bertelsen, G. (1999). “Potential of biobased materials for food packaging,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 52–68.
[69]
Petillot, F. (1976). Préventionetluttecontre les pollutions et nuisances des laiteries-fromageries. 102 p. Paris, Ministère de la qualité de la vie.
[70]
Ratanavaraporn, J., Kanokpanont, S., Tabata, Y., Damrongsakkul, S. (2008). Effects of acid type on physical and biological properties of collagen scaffolds. Journal of Biomaterial Science 19(7):945-952.
[71]
Robertson G. (2006). Food packaging principles and practices. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla.:Taylor & Francis. 545 p.
[72]
Robertson, G. L. (2006). Food Packaging: Principles and Practice, Food science and technology, Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2nd edition.
[73]
Rust and Robert (1977). Sausage and Processed Meats Manufacturing. Washington D.C: AMI Center for Continuing Education,American Meat Institute. 153p.
[74]
Savic, Z. (2012). Advances in the manufacture of sausage casings. In: Advances in meat, poultry and seafood packaging, Perry J. P. Woodhead Publishing: Oxford UK. p 377-405.
[75]
Schingoethe, D. J. (1976). Whey utilization in animal feeding: a summary and evaluation. J. Dairy Sci., 59(3): 556–570.
[76]
Sears, J.K, Darby, J.R. (1982). Mechanism of plasticizer action. In: The Technology of Plasticizers. John Wiley and Sons, New York. pp. 1166-1180.
[77]
Seydim, A. C., & Sarikus, G. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils. Food Research International, 39, 639 - 644
[78]
Smithers, G. W., Ballard, F. J., Copeland, A. D., De Silva, K. J., Dionysius, D. A., Francis, G. L., Goddard, C., Grieve, P.A., Mcintosh, G.H., Mitchell, I.R., Pearce, R.J., Regester, G.O. (1996). New opportunities from the isolation and utilization of whey proteins. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1454-1459.
[79]
Sothornvit, R., Krochta, J.M. (2005). Plasticizers in edible films and coatings. In: Innovations in Food Packaging. Han, J.H. (Ed.). New York, Elsevier Publishers. pp. 40-55.
[80]
Swaisgood, H.E. (1985). Characateristics of edible fluids of animal origin: milk. In: Food Chemistry 2ndEd. Fennema, O.R. (Ed.). Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 791-827.
[81]
Swift, G. (1993). Directions for environmentally biodegradable polymer research. Acc. Chem. Res. 26:105-110.
[82]
Tanford, C., Bunville, L.G., Nozaki, Y. (1959). The reversible transformation of β -lactoglobulin at pH 7.5. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81:4032-4036.
[83]
Thompson, A., Boland, M., H. Singh, (2009) ed. Milk Proteins: From Expression to Food. Academic Press: San Diego, USA.
[84]
Verheul, M.(1998). Aggregation and gelation of whey proteins. Univ. Twente.
[85]
Vieira, M. G. A.; Altenhofen, D.; Silva, M.; Oliveira, D. S. L. & Beppu, M. M. (2011). Natural-based plasticizers and biopolymer films: A review. European Polymer Journal, Vol.47, No.3, (March 2011), pp. 254-263. ISSN: 0014-3057.
[86]
Visser P. R, Inventor; 2012 May 10. Casings for foodstuffs. U.S. patent 20120114807A1.
[87]
Wu, Y., Rhim, J. W., Weller, C.L., Hamouz, F., Cuppett, S., Schnepf, M. (2000). Moisture loss and lipid oxidation for precooked beef patties stored in edible coating and films. J. Food Sci. 65:300-304.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186