Redesigning Waste Water Treatment Process in View of Utilising the Water: A Case Study at a Citrus Juice Processing Company in Zimbabwe
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 15-21
Received: Sep. 9, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 15, 2014;
Published: Sep. 17, 2014
Views 2906 Downloads 149
Bruce Chitunhu, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Science & Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Box BE 277, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe
Raphael Kwiri, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Science & Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Box BE 277, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe
Perkins Muredzi, Department of Food Processing Technology, School of Industrial Science & Technology, Harare Institute of Technology, Ganges Rd, Box BE 277, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe
Disposal of industrial wastewater from a local citrus juice processing company was found to be resulting in negative environmental impacts on the vegetation surrounding the disposal site and the treated wastewater did not meet the minimum purity requirements stated in the Zimbabwe Environmental Management Act (Chapter 20:27). This project was aimed at redesigning the process so that wastewater which meets required legal requirements for quality is discharged and made available for different purposes. Samples of wastewater were collected at the company’s effluent processing plant and experiments were conducted to assess its overall quality. The process was redesigned based on the shortcomings found. The redesigned wastewater treatment prototype gave water that was legally fit for disposal, with an average pH of 7.6 and could be used for irrigation purposes.
Redesigning Waste Water Treatment Process in View of Utilising the Water: A Case Study at a Citrus Juice Processing Company in Zimbabwe, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Special Issue:Optimizing Quality and Food Process Assessment.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 15-21.
Ahmed A.H, Moustafa M, T.A, 1986, Growth and survival of Yersenia enterocolitica in yoghurt, J. Fd Prot 49
Anonymous, 2003, Analysis of microbial hazards related to time/temperature
AkuzuoOfoefule, 2011,Waste Water: Treatment Options and its Associated Benefits, Waste Water - Evaluation and Management, SebastiÃ¡nGarcÃa
Alissa Hamilton, 2010,Squeezed: What You Don't Know about Orange Juice , Yale Agrarian Studies,
American Society for Horticultural Science,2008, "Reclaimed Wastewater Benefits Florida's Citrus Orchards.
Buchanan, Richard, 2000,"Good Design in the Digital Age." GAIN: AIGA Journal of Design for the Network Economy.
Candela L, Fabregat S, Josa A, Suriol J, Vigues N, Mas J, 2007,Assessment of soil and groundwater impacts by treated urban wastewater reuse. A case study: Application in a golf course, Girona, Spain, 374:26-35.
Chang, E.-W. Lee, S. Oh, Y. Kim, 2005, Comparison of SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) between RO and NF processes for the reclamation of secondary effluent Water Science and Technology, pp. 313–318
Duncan RR, Carrow RN, Huck MT, 2009,Turf grass and Landscape Irrigation Water Quality "Assessment and Management". New York: CRC Press;
Environmental Management (Water Quality Standards) Regulations, 2007.
Eui-Chan Jeon, Hyun-Keun Son, and Jae-Hwan Sa, 2009, Emission Characteristics and Factors of Selected Odorous Compounds at a Wastewater Treatment Plant
Heidarpour M, Mostafazadehfard B, Abedikoupai J, Malekian R, 2007,The effects of treated wastewater on soil chemical properties using subsurface and surface irrigation methods. Agricultural Water Management , 90:87-94.
J Hazard Mater M:, 2004 , Water strategies and potentional of water reuse in south Mediterranean countries.Desalination , 165:31-41.
Kansel, B.D. and Singh, J. (1983), Influence of the municipal wastewater and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in plants. In: Proceedings of International Conferences of Heavy Metals in the Environment, Heidelberg, Germany, CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, 413–416.
Khan, A.R, 1995, Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Processes Pakistan, Master of Science Research of Loughborough,
Kolko, Jon, 2007, Thoughts on Interaction Design, Brown Bear LLC,
Kothari, C. R, 2004 ,Research Methodology; Methods and Techniques, WishwaPrakashan, India.
Loetscher T, 1998,SANEX Sanitation Expert Systems, Milan
Levine, 2004, "Peer Reviewed: Recovering Sustainable Water from Wastewater". Environmental Science & Technology
Ludwig, S, 1998,Decentralized Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries Bremen Overseas Research and development Association, Bremen.
Levine A, Asano T (2004). Recovering sustainable water from wastewater. Environ SciTechnol; 201A
Mann, H.T., Williamson, D, 1982,Water Treatment and Sanitation, Intermediate Technology, England, Nottingham,
Mara, D, 1991, Sewage Treatment in Hot Climates, John Wiley and Sons. Neptune Pacific Ltd
Mcyintre, J.P, 2006, Industrial Water Reuse and Wastewater Minimization, Trevose: GeWater
Morgan, Kelly T., Wheaton, T. Adair, Parsons, Larry R., Castle, William S, 2008, Effects of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water on Horticultural Characteristics, Fruit Quality, and Soil and Leaf Mineral Concentration of Citrus. HortScience, 43: 459-464
Mujeriego R, Sala L (1991). Golf course irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Water Sci Technol;24(9):161–72 p.
Maczulak, Anne Elizabeth (2010). Pollution: Treating Environmental Toxins. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 120.
Onyechere L.N., U. Ngodi and M.N. Ezike, 2007, Anaerobic biotechnology for sustainable waste treatment. A review. J. Res. Bioscience
Pickford, J, 1991, the Worth of Water. Technical Briefs on health, water and sanitation Russell Press Ltd., Nottingham.
Qadir M, Oster JD, 2004,Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.Sci Total Environ 323:1-19.
Renzetti, S. &Dupont, D, 1996, "Water Use in the Canadian Food and Beverage Industry," York (Canada)
Rossi F,Mapei,LBonomo, 1991, Textile water reuse: Ecological bulletin e in northern Italy,Milan
Shah, K.L,1994, An Overview of Physical, Biological, and Chemical Processes for Wastewater Treatment, In: Process Engineering for Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, New York.
Sozanskyy S, 1998,Two-level clearance of wastewater ; Food and processing industry, York (Canada)
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1998, (20th ed.)American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA.
Tchobanoglous, G., 1995. Decentralized systems for wastewater management. Decentralized systems for wastewater management. In: 24th Annual WEAO Technical Symposium, Toronto, Canada.
UNEP, 2007, Utilization in African Beverage Industries: Current Practices and Prospects. Nairobi
Wakefield, J. M, 1953,The results of research on citrus waste disposal. Fla. State Hort.
Walker, Andrea ,2009, "Ask an Academic: Orange Juice". The New Yorker.
Xu J, Wu L, Chang AC, Zhang Y, 2010,: Impact of long-term reclaimed wastewater irrigation on agricultural soils: A preliminary assessment
Yacyk A.V , 2007,Water resources in the context of ecological safety and sustainable development of a state