Prevalence and Predictors of Anaemia Among Adolescent Girls in Rural Hadero Tunto District, Southern Ethiopia: Community Based Study
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages: 16-24
Received: Aug. 5, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 2, 2020; Published: Mar. 23, 2020
Views 23      Downloads 17
Tsegaye Alemu, Maternal and Child Health, John Snow Inc. Research & Training Institute/Last Ten Killo Meters, South Nation National Region, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Samson Gebremedhin, Department of Public and Environmental Health, College of Health Science, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Introduction: During adolescent anaemia has negative consequence on cognitive, work performance and economic productive. However, there is limited evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among adolescent girls. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of anaemia among rural adolescent girls in Hadero Tunto zuria district, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls 10-19 years. A total of 406 subjects were randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Blood haemoglobin level was determined from capillary blood using the Haemocue method. Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS versions 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the factors associated with anaemia. Result: The mean (±SD) of haemoglobin concentration adjusted for altitude was 13.7+1.2 (SD) and ranged from 8 to 16.6g/dl. Over all prevalence of anaemia was found to be 15.2% [95%CI: 11.68%, 18.72%]. Out of the total 406 adolescent girls 13.7% [95% CI: 10.33%, 17.06%] and 1.5% [95%CI: 0.3%, 2.7%] had mild and moderate anaemia, respectively. Low dietary diversity, (AOR= 10.0, 95% CI: 1.70, 60.0), long menstrual duration (AOR=5.10, 95% CI: 1.43, 18.15), malaria attack history (AOR=3.50, 95%CI: 1.40, 8.57), and less frequent consumption of legumes (AOR=3.20, 95%CI: 1.17, 8.74) were significantly associated with anaemia. Furthermore, the prevalence of stunting and thinness was 21.3% and 16.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Anaemia is a public health problem in the study area; which require integrated governmental and NGO intervention to tackle the burden; enhance dietary diversity, promote Insecticide Treated Bednets (ITNs) utilization and adolescent nutrition education are important strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.
Rural Community, Adolescent Anaemia, Hadero Tunto District
To cite this article
Tsegaye Alemu, Samson Gebremedhin, Prevalence and Predictors of Anaemia Among Adolescent Girls in Rural Hadero Tunto District, Southern Ethiopia: Community Based Study, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2020, pp. 16-24. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20200901.14
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WHO. Strategic directions for improving Adolescent Health in South-East Asia region. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
United Nation Children`s Fund. The state of the world children: adolescent an age of opportunity. New York: UNICEF; 2011.
WHO. Prevention of Iron deficiency Anaemia in adolescents: Role of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation. India: WHO; 2011.
WHO. Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescent (AA-HA!): Guidance to support country implementation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
Chandrakumari AS, Sinha P, Singaravelu S, and Jaikumar S. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of family med prim care 2019; 8 (4): 1414-1417.
Wolde T, Amanu W, Mekonnin D, Yitayin F, Abu F, Dufera F, Birhanu T, and Ejeta E. Nutritional status of adolescent girls living in South west of Ethiopia: Food Science and Quality Management 2014; 4: 58-64.
WHO. WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Anaemia Policy Brief. Geneva: WHO; 2014.
Lopez A, Cacoub P, Macdougall IC and Peyrin-Biroulet L. Iron deficiency anaemia. Lancet 2016; 387: 907- 916.
Christopher V, Charles, Maddock J (Ed.). Iron deficiency anemia: A Public Health Problem of Global Proportions. Public Health Methodology, Environmental and Systems Issues 2012; 121-122.
Yasutake S, He H, Michele R, Decker, Freya L. Sonenstein Nan M, Astone. Anemia among adolescent and young women in Low-and-Middle-income countries. International Journal child Health and Nutrition 2013; 2: 105-112.
Hadero, Hadero Tunto Zuria District Health Office. Woreda-based health sector annual Plan. Hadero: HTZ; 2016.
Mulugeta A, Gebre M, Abdelkadir M, Tsadik AG, Yesus AG and Stoecker BJ. Iron deficiency in adolescent school girls from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Journal Fed Amer Soci Exper Bio 4; 2010.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Ethiopia and ICF. Ethiopia demographic and Health survey 2012. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: CSA and ICF; 2012.
Swindale A, Bilinsky P. Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for Measurement of household food access: indicator guide: FANTA III; 2006
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity. Rome: FAO; 2011.
HemocueR 301 user manual; 2015 (accessed 2016).
WHO. Multicenter Growth Reference Study Group: WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006 [Accessedin Nov 8, 2016].
De-onis, M, Onyango, AW, Borghi, E, Siyam, A, Nishida, C, Siekmann, J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bulletin of world health organization 2007, 85 (9).
World Health Organization. WHO AnthroPlus for personal computers manual: Software for assessing growth of the world’s children and adolescents. Geneva: WHO; 2009 [Accessed in Feb 12, 2016]. Available in:
International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG). Adjusting Hemoglobin value in program surveys, 2002.[Accessed on April 05, 2016].
WHO. The global prevalence of anaemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.
Andriastuti M, Ilmana G, Nawangwulan SA, and Kosasih KA. Prevalence of anemia and iron profile among children and adolescent with low socio-economic status. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine/Elsevier 2019; 1-5.
Ahankari AS, Myles PR, Fogarty AW, Dixit JV, and Tata LJ. Prevalence of iron deficiency Anaemia and risk factors in 1010 adolescent girls from rural Maharashtra, India: a cross-sectional survey. Public Health Elsevier 2016; 1-8.
Baliga, SS, Naik, VA, and Mallapur, MD. Nutritional status of adolescent girls residing in rural area: A community-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Soc 2014; 41 (1): 22-25.
Mistry SK, Jhohura T, Khanam F, Akter F, Khan S, Yunus FM, Hossain MB, Afsana K, Haque MR, and Rahman, M. An outline of anemia among adolescent girls in Bangladesh: findings from a cross-sectional study. BMC Haematology 2017; 17 (13): 1-9.
Kumari, R, Bharti, RK, Singh, K, Sinha, A, Kumar, S, Saran, A, and Kumar, U. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Adolescent Girls in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Journal of clinical and Diagnosis Research 2017; 11 (8): 4-6.
Assefa S, Mossie A and Hamza L. Prevalence and severity of anemia among school children in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. BMC Hematology Journal 2014; 14: 3.
Gebremedhin S, Enquselassie F and Umeta M. Prevalence and Correlates of maternal anemia in ruralSidama, Southern Ethiopia. Africa Journal repro health 2014; 18 (1): 53.
Adem OS, Tadsse K, and Gebremedhin A. Iron deficiency anemia is moderate Public health problem among school going adolescent girls in Berahle district, Afar, North East Ethiopia. Journal Food and Nutrition Science 2015; 3 (1); 10-16. Doi: 10.11648/jfns.20150301.12.
Jagannath DK, Kuldeep DS, Narendra SM, Hrishikesh AK, and Vivek SB. 2014. Prevalence and Socio-demographic factors related to anemia among adolescent girls in a rural area of Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. Intern journal science Study 2014; 2 (8).
Teji K, Dessie Y, Asseba T and Abdo M. Anaemia and Nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile district Eastern, Ethiopia. Pan Africa Medical Journal 2016; 1-10.
Damie TD, Wondafras M, and Nigussie A. Nutritional status and associated factors among school adolescent in Chiro Town, West Hararge, Ethiopia. European Journal of Therapeuticus 2016; 21: 32-42.
Bhattacharyya H and Barua A. Nutritional status and Factors affecting nutrition among adolescent girls in Urban Slums of Dibrugarh, Assam. Nat journal community med 2013; 4 (1): 35-9.
Assefa H, Belache T, and Negash L. Socioeconomic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal Public Health 2013; 7.
Patanwar P and Sharma K. Nutritional status of Kurmi Adolescent girls of Raipur city Chhattisgarh, India. International journal scientific and Research publication 2013; 3 (11): 1-6.
Berget T, Magala-Nyago C and Iversen PO. Nutritional Status among adolescent girls in children’s homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns. Clinical Nutrition Elsevier 2017; 1-8.
Barugahara EI, Kikafunda J, and Gakenia, WM. Prevalence and risk factors of nutritional anemia among female school children in Masindi district, Western Uganda. Africa Journal Food Agri, Nutr and Develop 2013; 13 (3).
Alem M, Enawgaw B, Gelaw A, Kena T, Seid M, and Olkeba Y. Prevalence of anemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal Inter discipl Histopathol 2013; 1 (3): 137-144.
Miah S, Rahman N, Prodhan UK, Linkon MR, Madumita, and Rahman, S. Prevalence of iron deficiency of anemia among adolescent girls and it risk factor in Tangail region of Bangladesh. IJRET 2014; 3 (06).
Arun V, Panat, Sambhji A, Pathare, Asran S, and Rohokale G. Iron deficincy among rural college girls: result of poor nutrition and prolonged menstruation. Journal community Nutrition health 2013; 2 (2).
Cooke AG, McCavit TL, Buchanan, GR, and Powers, JM. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adolescents Presenting with Heavy Menstrual Bleeding. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 2016; 1-18.
Power JM, Stanek JR, Srivaths L, Haamid FW, and Brien SH. Hematologic Considerations and Management of Adolescent Girls with Heavy Menstrual Bleeding and Anemia in US Children's Hospitals. Journal of paediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 2018; 31 (5): 446-450.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186