Chemical and Bacteriological Control of Drinking Water from 15 Villages in Côte d'Ivoire
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2018, Pages: 180-186
Received: Dec. 3, 2018;
Accepted: Dec. 22, 2018;
Published: Jan. 17, 2019
Views 109 Downloads 57
Christophe Ncho Amin, Department of Water and Food Analysis, National Institut of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Koffi Sylvain Dibi, Department of Toxicologie, National Laboratory of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Wolfgang Toussaint Yapo, Department of Water and Food Analysis, National Institut of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Carine Nina Able, Department of Toxicologie, National Laboratory of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Philippe André Sawa Kpaibé, Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Luc Kouadio, Department of Water and Food Analysis, National Institut of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Anglade Malan, Department of Toxicologie, National Laboratory of Public Health, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
The High percentage of diarrhea-related child deaths in Africa is related to water, sanitation and hygiene. In Côte d'Ivoire, 20% of the population feeds on water from unimproved water sources and surface water. These waters are not taken into account in the sanitary monitoring of drinking water in the country. Thus, this study aimed to control the quality of the main drinking water sources in several Ivorian localities without a drinking water supply system. The methodological approach was to carry out a campaign to collect water samples from the main sources of drinking water supply in fifteen villages in five regions of Côte d'Ivoire: Agnébi tiassa, Gontougo, Kabadougou, Sud-comoé and Nawa. On these samples, the classical physicochemical parameters were determined by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. Microbiological analysis was performed by membrane filtration technique and pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The results showed that the waters are characterized by mineralization ranging from 23.80 to 650 μScm-1, an acidic pH in 63% of cases, an high turbidity values (37% of cases), a color (30% of cases), in iron (20% of cases) and nitrites (17% of cases). All waters are contaminated by indicator germs of faecal pollution. A carbamate pesticide, terbucarb, was identified in 67% of the samples. In conclusion, the waters of the fifteen localities are of unsatisfactory quality and unfit for human consumption. Authorities should take measures to ensure the treatment, protection and continuous improvement of water quality in these areas in order to preserve population's health.
Christophe Ncho Amin,
Koffi Sylvain Dibi,
Wolfgang Toussaint Yapo,
Carine Nina Able,
Philippe André Sawa Kpaibé,
Chemical and Bacteriological Control of Drinking Water from 15 Villages in Côte d'Ivoire, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2018, pp. 180-186.
UNICEF/WHO, Progress on drinking water and sanitation: special focus on sanitation. New York; UNICEF; Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
UNICEF, World water day, Press centre, Press release, New York, 22 march 2013.
UNICEF/WHO, Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done, 2009.
United Nations, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development A/RES/70/1”, New York, 2015.
UNICEF/OMS, “An overview of the situation of drinking water and sanitation in Africa”, Caire, Egypte, 2012.
J. Park, J. S. Kim, S. Kim, E. Shin, K-H. Oh, Y. Kim, C. H. Kim, M. A. Hwang, C. M. Jin, K. Na, J. Lee , E. Cho, B-H. Kang, H-S. Kwak, W. K. Seong and J. Kim. A waterborne outbreak of multiple diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli infections associated with drinking water at a school camp. Int. J. Infectious Diseases, vol 66, pp 45–50, 2018.
H. M. Djellouli and S. Taleb, “Chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water from southern Algeria ", In "International Symposium on Underground Water Resources in the Sahara", Ouargla, Algeria, 2005.
R. Saha, N. C. Dey, S. Rahman, L. Galagedara and P. Bhattacharya. Exploring suitable sites for installing safe drinking water wells in coastal Bangladesh. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, Vol 7, pp 91-100, 2018.
National Institute of Statistics and Unicef. The situation of women and children in Côte d'Ivoire: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - MICS 5, 2016, Key Results Report. 2017, 470p.
AFNOR, Microbiological analysis: quality control of food products, 6 APHA. Washington D. C: Horizontal Methods, 1976.
M. A. L. Milhome, P. L. R. Sousa, D. D. Keukeleire and R. F. Nascimento, “Multiresidue Methods for Determination of Pesticides using SPME and SPE Followed by GC-NPD System: a Comparative Study” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. Vol. 22, n 11, p. 2048-2055, 2011.
G. P. Sabin, O. D. Prestes, M. B. Adaime and R. Zanella. “Multiresidue determination of pesticides in drinking water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. Vol. 20, p. 918-925, 2009.
A. Kouzayha, A. R. Rabaa, M. Al Iskandarani, D. Beh, H. Budzinski and F. Jaber, “Multiresidue method for determination of 67pesticides in water samples using solid-phase extraction withcentrifugation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry” Am. J. Anal. Chem. Vol. 3, p. 257-265, 2012.
World Health Organization, editor. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
E. W. Vissin, H. S. S. Aimade, L. D. Dougnon, M. Sohounou, E. Y. Atiye and G. A. A. Atchade, “Water quality and waterborne diseases in the municipality of Toffo (Benin, West Africa)”, J. Appl. Biosci, vol. 106, n 1, p. 10300, mars 2017.
A. Njueya, J. Likeng and A. Nono, “Hydrodynamics and groundwater quality in the Douala sedimentary basin (Cameroon): case of aquifers on quaternary and tertiary formations”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 6, n 4, déc. 2012.
N. E. B. Tamungang, N. F. Biosengazeh, M. N. Alakeh and D. Y. Tameu, “Quality control of domestic water in Babessi village in north-west Cameroon”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 10, n 3, p. 1382, déc. 2016.
A. F. Lanjri, J. Brigui, A. El Cadi, M. Khaddor and F. Salmoune, “Physico-chemical and bacteriological characterization groundwater of Tangier”, Mater. Environ. Sci. vol. 5, S1, p. 2230-2235, 2014.
M. O. Cheikh, K. El Kacemi and L Idrissi., “Physico-chemical characterization of the waters of the city of Tijikja (Mauritania)”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 5, n 5, p. 2133-2139, 2011.
K. Soncy, B. Djeri, K. Anani, M. Eklou-Lawson, Y. Adjrah, D. S. Karou, Y. Ameyapoh and C. de Souza, “Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of wells and drillings water in Lomé, Togo”, J. Appl. Biosci., vol. 91, n 1, p. 8464, sept. 2015.
M. Gnazou, K. Assogba, B. Sabi and L. Bawa, “Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water used in schools in Zio prefecture (Togo)”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 9, n 1, p. 504, juill. 2015.
UNICEF and WSSCC, “Annual Report: Togo without Free Air Defecation”, 2017.
S. K. Akpo, L. S. Coulibaly, L. Coulibaly and I. Savané, “Temporal Evolution of the pesticide use in tropical agriculture in the Marahoué watershed, Côte d’Ivoire”, Int. J. Innovation Appl. Studies, vol. 14, n 1, p. 121‑131, 2016.
M. Jokha, “Effects of agricultural pesticides and nutrients residue in weruweru sub-catchment”, School of Pure and Applied Sciences of Kenyatta University, Tanzania, 2015.
I. Giroux, The presence of pesticides in water in agricultural areas in Quebec. Quebec: Ministry of the Environment, 2004.
G. Fleischer, V. Andoli, M. Coulibaly and T. Randolph, Socio-economic analysis of the pesticides sector in Côte d'Ivoire. Abidjan: Institute of Economic Sciences, Herrenhäuser Horticulture Faculty Str. 2, D- 30419 Hannover, 1998.
Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests in Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, Updated National Profile on Chemicals Management in Côte d'Ivoire, 2008.
N. J. Akonguhi, N. C. Amin, K. S. Lekadou, J. P. Jourda, K. A. Malan and K. L Kouadio., “Sanitary inspection of hydraulics in 36 villages of the Abidjan region ", In the 5th Scientific Colloquium on Biology, Public Health and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Abidjan, p. 6., 2007
Eblin S., Sombo A., Soro G., Aka N., Kambire O. and Soro N., “Hydrochemistry of surface waters of the region of Adiaké (south-east coastal of Côte d’Ivoire)”, J. Appl. Biosci., vol. 75, n 1, pp. 6259, 2014.
C. Degbey, M. Makoutode, E. M. Ouendo and C. De Brouwer, “Physicochemical and microbiological pollution of well water in the commune of Abomey-Calavi in Benin”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 4, n 6, pp. 2257‑2271, 2010.
T. K. Yao, M. S. Oga, O. Fouche, D. Baka, C. Pernelle and J. Biemi. Assessment of the chemical potability of groundwater in a tropical watershed: Case of Southwest Côte d'Ivoire Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., vol. 6, n 6, pp. 7069-7086, 2013.
M Lagnika, M Ibikounle, J C Montcho, V D Wotto, N G Sakiti Physicochemical characteristics of well water in Pobè municipality, Benin, West Africa. J. Appl. Biosci., vol. 79, n 1, pp. 6887-6897, 2014.
T. Tagma, Y. Hsissou, L. Bouchaou, L. Bouragba and S. Boutaleb, Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west Morocco). Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 3, n 10, pp. 301–309, 2009.
F. Rosillon, B. Savadogo, A. Kabore, H. Bado-Sama and D. Dianou. Attempts to answer of the origin of the high nitrates concentrations in groundwater of the Sourou Valley in Burkina Faso. J. Wat. Resour. Prot., vol 4: pp. 663-673, 2012.