Percent Body Fat versus Body Mass Index among Ghanaian Adults in Different Districts
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 586-591
Received: Nov. 21, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 12, 2014;
Published: Dec. 19, 2014
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Helena Nti, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana
Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana
Alex Kojo Anderson, Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 U.S.A.
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Background: The debate regarding use of WHO body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for the assessment of nutritional status continues in the scientific community. That is, BMI may not be a true reflection of body composition. Researchers have investigated BMI and percent body fat (%BF) as risk factors for some chronic diseases. Objectives: The current study sought to evaluate the use of BMI to assess %BF and their relationship with high blood pressure (HBP) among Ghanaian adults. Methods: A total of 512 men and women were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted in urban (Accra Metropolitan District [AMD; 276]) and peri-urban (Upper Manya Krobo District [UMKD; 236]) Ghana. BMI and %BF were determined and proportions of underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese participants were compared. Relationship between BMI, %BF and HBP was investigated. Results and discussion: Mean BMI was greater for participants in the AMD than UMKD (25.69±4.85 and 24.51±4.89; p=0.007). %BF was also greater for men (p=0.001) and women (p=0.012) in the AMD than UMKD, respectively. Participants in the AMD (underweight-7%, normal weight-48%, overweight-24%, obese-21%) and UMKD (underweight-14%, normal weight-55%, overweight-17%, obese-15%) had different %BF (p=0.009) but not BMI (p=0.090). A significantly higher number of participants in the AMD had HBP (26%) than UMKD (19%) (p=0.038). Overweight/obese participants had significantly higher blood pressure compared to underweight/normal weight participants, in both AMD (by BMI; p=0.002 and by %BF; p<0.0001) and UMKD (by BMI and %BF; p<0.0001). BMI correlated moderately and significantly with %BF in both urban AMD (r=0.578; p<0.0001) and peri-urban UMKD (r=0.693; p<0.0001). Conclusion: BMI seems to be a good indicator for the assessment of adiposity among Ghanaian adults and may be used to assess adiposity in the absence of %BF.
Adiposity, BMI, Ghana, HBP, Obesity, Overweight, %BF
To cite this article
Alex Kojo Anderson,
Percent Body Fat versus Body Mass Index among Ghanaian Adults in Different Districts, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2014, pp. 586-591.
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