Early Recognition of Endometriosis Depending on Severity of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages: 191-199
Received: Apr. 15, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 17, 2019;
Published: Jul. 16, 2019
Views 607 Downloads 75
Youssria Elsayed Yousef, Departments of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Salwa Ali Marzouk, Departments of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Hameida Alam Eldien, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University, Assiut, Egypt
Howieda Fouly, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University, Assiut, Egypt
Neama Mohamed El Magrab, Departments of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Safaa Rashad Mahmoud, Departments of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Background: Endometriosis is recognized as the ‘disease of young girls’ because it seems to be more common in young girls. Early diagnosis is greatly essential to receive appropriate treatment and avoid complications. Aim of the study: to evaluate severe dysmenorrhea for early recognition of endometriosis among adolescent girls. Subject and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive design was used in this study. The study included 571 adolescent girls from 4 representative elementary schools in Assiut city. A structured Questionnaire was developed by the investigators and included four parts: Part I: demographic data; Part II: menstrual pattern: Part III. Pain history including: a. pain characteristics. b. Menstrual pain associating symptoms: c. Pain level: using of Horizontal Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0-10 points. Part IV: finding of Trans-abdominal ultrasound (AUS) for those with severe dysmenorrhea. Field work: The study passed through three phases including assessment, implementation, and follow up phases with a period of 7 months. Results: the majority of the girls were between the age of 13 - 14 years. According to VAS, severe dysmenorrhea was reported in 68 girls (15%). Positive ultrasonography findings suggestive of endometriosis were reported among 57.4% of girls who had severe dysmenorrhea. The majority (71.2%) of those girls with severe dysmenorrhea responded to hormonal treatment while 28.2% not responded. There was a positive correlation between number of symptoms associating dysmenorrhea and the pain level. Conclusions and recommendations: Moderate and severe dysmenorrhea are common among adolescent. Those girls who had severe dysmenorrhea and more than five symptoms associating dysmenorrhea might be suspected to have endometriosis. Further large scale study is essential with the use of more informative investigations as MRI and laparoscopy to gain accurate estimate of the prevalence of the disease and its types.
Youssria Elsayed Yousef,
Salwa Ali Marzouk,
Hameida Alam Eldien,
Neama Mohamed El Magrab,
Safaa Rashad Mahmoud,
Early Recognition of Endometriosis Depending on Severity of Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls, American Journal of Nursing Science.
Vol. 8, No. 4,
2019, pp. 191-199.
Acién P, Velasco I. Endometriosis: a disease that remains enigmatic. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 17 242149. doi: 10.1155/2013/242149.
Di Paola V, Manfredi R, Castelli F, Negrelli R, Mehrabi S, Pozzi Mucelli R. Detection and localization of deep endometriosis by means of MRI and correlation with the ENZIAN score. Eur J Radiol. 2015 84 4 568–574. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.12.017.
Mavrelos D, Saridogan E. Treatment of endometriosis in women desiring fertility. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2015 65 1 11-6. doi: 10.1007/s13224-014-0652-y.
Saridogan E. Endometriosis in Teenagers. SAGE Journals, 2016 11 5 705-709.
Chapron, C, Lafay-Pillet, MC, Monceau, E. Questioning patients about their adolescent history can identify markers associated with deep infiltrating endometriosis. Fertil. Steril. 2011 95 3 877–881.
Fong Y, Hon S and Low L. The clinical proﬁle of young and adolescent women with laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis in a Singapore tertiary hospital. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2017 56 181-183.
Cosma S, Salgarello M, Ceccaroni M, Gorgoni G, Riboni F, La Paglia E, Danese S, enedetto C. Accuracy of a new diagnostic tool in deep infiltrating endometriosis: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 16α-[18F] fluoro-17β-estradiol. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2016 42 12 1724-1733. doi: 10.1111/jog.13117.
Verma SK, Lev-Toaff AS, Baltarowich OH, Bergin D, Verma M, Mitchell DG. Adenomyosis: sonohysterography with MRI correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 192 4 1112-6. doi: 10.2214/AJR.08.1405.
Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Magnetic resonance imaging as a non-invasive detection tool for extraovarian endometriosis--own experience. Ginekol Pol. 2014 85 9 658–64.
Bazot M, Bharwani N, Huchon C, et al. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis. Eur Radiol. 2017 27 7 2765–2775. doi: 10.1007/s00330-016-4673-z.
National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Endometriosis; diagnosis and management. NICE guideline 2017. (nice.org.uk/guidance/ng73).
Barrow, T. A., Liong, S. Y., Sukumar, Sathi Anandan. Complex abdominopelvic endometriosis: the radiologist's perspective. Abdominal Imaging. 2015 40 7 2541-2556.
Mao AJ, Anastasi JK. Diagnosis and management of endometriosis: the role of the advanced practice nurse in primary care. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010 22 2 109-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00475.x.
Yang, Y, Wang, Y, Yang, J, Wang, S, Lang, J. Adolescent endometriosis in China: a retrospective analysis of 63 cases. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 2012 25 5 295–299.
Kim S, Yoon BI, Kim SJ, Cho HJ, Kim HS, Hong SH, Lee JY, Hwang TK, Kim SW. Effect of Oral Administration of Acetaminophen and Topical Application of EMLA on Pain during Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy. Korean J Urol. 2011 52 7 452-6. doi: 10.4111/kju.2011.52.7.452.
Pitts MK, Ferris JA, Smith AM, Shelley JM, Richters J. Prevalence and correlates of three types of pelvic pain in a nationally representative sample of Australian women. Med J Aust. 2008 4 189 3 138-43.
Polat A, Celik H, Gurates B, Kaya D, Nalbant M, Kavak E. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young adult female university students. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 279 527–32.
Ragab A, Shams M, Badawy A, Alsammani MA. Prevalence of endometriosis among adolescent school girls with severe dysmenorrhea: A cross sectional prospective study. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2015 9 3 273-81.
Kagia, A. Prevalence of Pain Symptoms Suggestive of Endometriosis Among Adolescents in Kenya. Theses, College of Health Science, University of Nairobi 2017.
Shrotriya C, Ray A, Ray S, Thomas GA. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence and effect of dysmenorrhea on quality of life in medical students. Int J Collab Res Intern Med Public Health, 2012 4 276–94.
Unsal A, Ayranci U, Tozun M, Arslan G and Calik E. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 2010 115 2 138–145.
Kural MR, Noor NN, Pandit D, Joshi Tand Patil A. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls J Family Med Prim Care. 2015 4 3 426–431.
Suvitie PA, Hallamaa MK, Matomäki JM, Mäkinen JI, Perheentupa AH. Prevalence of Pain Symptoms Suggestive of Endometriosis among Finnish Adolescent Girls (TEENMAPS study). J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016 29 2 97-103.
Janssen, EB, Rijkers, AC, Hoppenbrouwers, K, Meuleman, C, D'Hooghe, TM. Prevalence of endometriosis diagnosed by laparoscopy in adolescents with dysmenorrhea or chronic pelvic pain: a systematic review. Hum. Reprod. Update 2013 19 5 570–582.
Fawole AO, Bello FA, Ogunbode O, Odukogbe A-TA, Nkwocha GC, Nnoaham KE, et al. Endometriosis and associated symptoms among Nigerian women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015 130 2 190–4.
Roman, JD. Adolescent endometriosis in the Waikato region of New Zealand – a comparative cohort study with a mean follow-up time of 2.6 years. Aust. NZ J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2010 50 2 179–183.
Nnoaham KE, Webster P, Kumbang J, Kennedy SH and Zondervan KT. Is early age at menarche a risk factor for endometriosis? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Fertil Steril; 2012 98 3 702–712.