Please enter verification code
Challenges Facing Nurses While Participating in Continuing Professional Development: A Case of Western Kenya
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 6, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 304-307
Received: May 12, 2017; Accepted: May 19, 2017; Published: Jul. 10, 2017
Views 2779      Downloads 212
Mosol Priscah, Department of Midwifery and Gender, School of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Kei Robert, Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, Meru University, Meru, Kenya
Obwoge Ronald Omenge, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya
Ng’eno Anne, Department of Medical Education, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background: The context of work for nurses is rapidly changing due to changes in care, innovative technologies, and emergence of new knowledge. Participation in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in many countries in Africa remains low. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the challenges facing Nurses while participating in CPD in Western Kenya. Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional study design was employed where 235 stratified and randomly selected nurses and four CPD Coordinators from four County Hospitals in Western Kenya were selected. The Key informants and the respondents for Focus Group Discussions were selected purposively. Data for this research was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussion guide. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS V. 20). Data was summarized using frequencies; means and standard deviation. The data obtained was presented using percentage distributions, bar graphs and frequencies. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results: Majority of the nurses reported staff shortage 199 (85.8%), lack of time due to heavy workload 179 (77.2%) and lack of finance 137 (59.1%). Other challenges included: lack of information on availability of CPD (35.8%), family commitment (28.9%), lack of interest (15.1%) and distance (27.2%). Findings from FGDs showed similar results; staff shortage and heavy workload were cited as major challenges hindering nurse’s participation in CPDs. Key informants reported, lack of written policies for CPD, lack of available guidelines for CPD and lack of coordination with other CPD coordinators either at County level or at National level. Conclusion and Recommendations: The main challenges highlighted by nurses were:-staff shortages, lack of time due to heavy workload, lack of finances, night shift and lack of information on the availability of CPD. Key informants highlighted:- lack of written policies for CPD, lack of available guidelines for CPD, lack of coordination with other CPD coordinators. The study recommends employing more nurses, formulating policies affecting CPD and providing financial support to help support CPD activities. Coordinators should organize favorable time and space for CPD activities while ensuring equal opportunities are offered for participation and there is need for coordination with other CPD coordinators either at County level or at National level.
Continuing Professional Development, CPD Activities, Challenges, CPD Coordinator
To cite this article
Mosol Priscah, Kei Robert, Obwoge Ronald Omenge, Ng’eno Anne, Challenges Facing Nurses While Participating in Continuing Professional Development: A Case of Western Kenya, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2017, pp. 304-307. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20170604.14
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Banning, M. & Stafford, M. (2008). A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community. Nurses’ Continuing Professional Development. British Journal of Community Nursing, 13(4): 178-182.
Barribal, K. L., While, A. E. (1996). Participation in continuing professional education in Nursing: Findings of an Interview Study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.
Cooper, E. (2009). Creating a Culture of Professional Development: A Milestone Pathway Tool for Registered Nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 40, (1).
Davey, B., Robinson, S. (2002). Taking a Degree after Qualifying as a Registered General Nurse: Constraints and Effects. Nurse Education Today; 22: 624-631. Elsevier Science Direct.
De Villiers, M. (2008). Global Challenges in Continuing Professional Development: The South African perspective. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 28 (S1): 26.
Draper, J. (2007). Impact of Continuing Professional Education on Practice: The Rhetoric and the Reality. Nurse Education Today.
Farooq, P. S. (2003). Continuing professional development for psychiatrists in Developing Countries. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment.
Golding, L., & Gray, I. (2006). Continuing Professional Development: A Brief Guide. The Psychologist. 19(9), 530-532.
Hamdeh, H. A. & Jaradeh, M. (2010). Nurses' Experiences of Continuing Professional Development: DAR Publishers, university of Jordan. J Med J; Vol. 44 (3): 313- 322).
Johnson, A. & Copnell, B. (2002). Benefits and Barriers for Nurses Undertaking Post-Graduate Diplomas in Pediatric Nursing. Nurse Education Today; 22: 118-127. Available Elsevier Science Direct. Journal of Medical Education. Vol. 01, no. 01.
Kubsch, S., Henniges, A., Lorenzoni, N., Eckardt, S & Oleniczak, S. (2003). Factors Influencing Accruement of Contact hours for nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 34(5): 205-211.
Lakati, A. & Ngatia, P. (2012). Barriers to Enrolment into a Professional upgrading Programme for Enrolled Nurses in Kenya. Pan African Medical Journal. 13 (1: 10).
Larcombe, K. & Maggs, C. (1991). Process for Identifying the Continuing Professional Education Needs of Nurses, Midwives and Health visitors. An Evaluation. English National Board for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors. London.
Mayes, P & Schott-Baer, D. (2010). Professional Development for Night Shift Nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(1): 17-22.
McCoy, C. (2009). Professional Development in Rural Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 40(3): 128-131.
Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2000). The PREP (practice) Standard, Nursing and Midwifery Council. www.nmc-org/nmc/main/advice/thePracticeStandard.html (accessed on 27/7/2016).
Onyango, D. A. (2012). Nurses' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development in a Public Health Care Facility in Kisumu, Kenya. University of South Africa.
Schweitzer, D. J & Krassa, T. J. (2010). Deterrents to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing Professional Development: An Integrative Literature Review. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(10): 441-447.
Stanley, H. (2003). The Journey to Becoming a Graduate Nurse: A Study Of The Lived Experience of Part-Time Post-Registration Students. Nurse Education in Practice. 3: 62-71.
Watson, R., Manthorpe, J. & Andrews J. (2003). Nurses Over Fifty: Options, Decisions and Outcomes. London: James Rowntree Foundation.
WHO, (2010). Scaling up Education and Training of Human Resources for Health in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186