Association Between Social Phobia and Parenting Styles Among Secondary School Students
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 96-105
Received: Apr. 7, 2016; Accepted: May 3, 2016; Published: May 14, 2016
Views 6345      Downloads 313
Eman Shokry Abdallah, Community Health Nursing Dep., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Hanaa Hamdy ELzeiny, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Dep., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Rehab Fathy Abdel-hady, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Dep., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Marwa Samy El-Sheikh, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Dep., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Social phobia (SP) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders among adolescent youth and remains under recognized and under treated. Environmental factors specifically parenting styles are particularly significant in the development of social phobia. Aim of the present study was to determine the association between social phobia and parenting styles among secondary school students. A descriptive design was selected in carrying out this study. The Setting of the present study was in the governmental schools in ElSinbellawin city, Dakhlia governerate. The sample size included a simple random sample composed of 446 students from three secondary schools; Ahmed Lofty El-Sayed secondary school for boys, El-Sadat secondary school for boys and The Secondary school for girls. Tools used for data collection were; sociodemographic data sheet, parenting styles and social phobia scales. Results revealed that female students recorded higher prevalence of social phobia (23.6%) than did in male students (14.4%). The significant difference was revealed between authoritarian, neglectful parenting styles and developing social phobia in the female students. There was a significant negative correlation between parenting styles and social phobia. This study concluded that social phobia is higher in females than in males. More the parents showed (authoritarian, authoritative, over-protective, neglectful) parenting style, their children showed lower levels of social phobia. The study recommended with early identification of socio phobic students by school nurse and social worker will be successfully help in providing early and adequate treatment, which in turn, reduce the burden of this common condition. Providing parents with educational programs about the efficacy of authoritative parenting style in nurturing their children.
Social Phobia, Parenting Styles, Adolescence Age
To cite this article
Eman Shokry Abdallah, Hanaa Hamdy ELzeiny, Rehab Fathy Abdel-hady, Marwa Samy El-Sheikh, Association Between Social Phobia and Parenting Styles Among Secondary School Students, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 96-105. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160503.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Powell VB, Oliveira OH, Seixas C, Almeida C, Grangeon MC, Caldas M, Bonfim TD, Castro M, Galvão-de Almeida A, Moraes RO, Sudak D & de-Oliveira IR. (2013): Changing core beliefs with trial-based therapy may improve quality of life in social phobia: a randomized study. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria; 35 (3): 243-247.
American Psychiatric Association (2013): Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Washington.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000): Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed-TR). Washington, DC: Author.
Kerns CE, Comer JS, Pincus DB & Hofmann SG. (2013): Evaluation of the Proposed Social Anxiety Disorder Specifier Change for Dsm-5 in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Anxious Youth. National Institute of Health Public Access; 30 (8): 709-715.
Bögels SM, Alden L, Beidel DC, Clark LA, Pine DS, Stein MB & Voncken M. (2010): Social anxiety disorder: Questions and answers for the DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety; 27 (2): 168–189.
Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swendsen J, Avenevoli S, Case B & Olfson M. (2011):Service utilization for lifetime mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results of the National Comorbidity Survey – Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 50 (1): 32–45.
Gallagher M, Prinstein MJ, Simon V & Spirito A. (2014): Social Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Early Adolescents: Examining Loneliness and Social Support as Longitudinal Mediators. J Abnorm Child Psychol; 42 (6): 871-883.
verach L & Rapee RM. (2014): Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Status and future directions. Journal of Fluency Disorder;. 40: 69-82.
Knappe S, Beesdo K & Pine DS. (2009): Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V". Psychiatr Clin North Am; 32 (3): 483-524.
Kordi A & Baharudin R. (2010): Parenting Attitude, Style, and Its Effect on Children’s School Achievements. International Journal of Psychological Studies; 2 (2): 217-222.
Lokoyi OLO. (2015): Parenting Styles as Correlates of Aggressive Behavior among In-School Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences; 4 (3) 94-100.
Tunde-Ayinmode MF & Adegunloye OA. (2011): Parenting style and conduct problems in children: A report of deliberate selfpoisoning in a Nigerian child. Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria; 17 (2): 60-63.
Pong S-L, Johnston J & Chen V. (2010): Authoritarian Parenting and Asian Adolescent School Performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan. Int J Behav Dev; 34 (1): 62–72.
Massachusetts General Hospital, School Psychiatry Program & MADI Resource Centre (2010): school based intervention of social anxiety: School Psychiatry Program and MADI Resource Centre. Retrieved 7 October 2015, from
Ryan JL & Warner CM. (2012): Treating Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder in Schools. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am; 21 (1): 105-118.
Bolsoni-Silva AT & Loureiro SR. (2014): The Role of Social Skills in Social Anxiety of University Students. Paideia; 24 (58): 224.
Chan TW & Koo A. (2011): Parenting style and youth outcomes in the UK. European Sociological Review; 27 (3): 385-399.
Nikoogoftar M & Seghatoleslam S. (2015): The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Adolescent Behavioral and Emotional Problems. Research Papers; 3 (1): 23-30.
El-Gilany A, El-Wehady & El-Wasify M. (2012): Updating and validation of the socioeconomic status scale for health research in Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal; 18 (9): 962-968.
Sakkar E. (1984): Anmatt Eltanshea Elwaldya Waelaqetaha Belkhagl Lada Talba Elsaf Elawl Elthanwy Fi Mohafaza Ram -Allah W Elbeila. Al-Quodss University. Palstine.
Raulin ML & Wee JL. (1994): Social fear scale. In J. Fisher & K. Corcoran (Eds.), Measures for clinical practice: Asource book second ed. 2:595. New York: The free press.
El-Desoky M. (2004): Arabic version of Social phobia scale. Ed. by Alnhda library Cairo-Egypt.
Otowa T, Gardner CO, Kendler KS & Hettema JM. (2013): Parenting and risk for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders: a study in population-based male twins. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol; 48 (11): 1841–1849.
Saad K, Al-Atram AA, Abdel Baseer KA, Ali AM & El-Houfey AA (2015): Assessment of Quality of life, Anxiety and Depression in Children with Turner syndrome: A Case-Control Study. American Journal of Neuroscience; 6: 8.12.
Jazaieri H, Morrison AS, Goldin PR & Gross JJ. (2015): The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep; 17 (531):1-9.
Ranta K, Kaltiala-Heino R, Pelkonen M & Marttunen M. (2009): Associations between peer victimization, self-reported depression and social phobia among adolescents: the role of comorbidity. Journal of Adolescence; 32 (1): 77-93.
Gültekin BK & Dereboy I F. (2011): The prevalence of social phobia, and its impact on quality of life, academic achievement, and identity formation in university students. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry; 22 (3): 150-158.
Alkhafji AZM. (2012): Social phobia among Al Qadissya medical student: prevalence, Academic performance and response to different treatments; 54 (1): 33-37.
Alhabees FA & Alkhutaba MY. (2015): Social phobia among Isra University students in light of some variables. Global Journal of Psychology and Behavioural Education; 3 (2): 088-091.
McLean CP, Asnaani A, Litz BT & Hofmann SG. (2011): Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness. Journal of psychiatric research; 45 (8): 1027-1035.
Uzonwanne FC & Akpunne BC. (2015): Influence of Family Status and Relationships on Social Phobia among Young Adults in Nigerian Universities. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal; 2 (1): 11-23.
Beesdo K, Knappe S & Daniel S & Pine DS. (2009): Anxiety and anxiety Disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSMV. The Psychiatric clinics of North America; 32 (3): 483-524.
Ragheb K, Abd El-Azem S, Abdel-wahab M, Attia H, Ismail R, Said M & Taha H. (2009): Prevalence of Social Anxiety Symptoms Among a Sample of Egyptian Adolescents. Egyptian Journal of Psychiatry; 29 (1): 5-13.
Amr M, El-Wasify M, El-Gilany A-H & Rees S. (2013): Gender differences among patients with social phobia in Egypt. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry; 24 (1): 52-59.
Zeinali A. (2014): Relationship of Parenting Style with Self-Regulation in Adolescent. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture; 9 (3): 1105-1121.
Shalini A & Acharya YT. (2013): Perceived Paternal Parenting style on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents. Guru Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences; 1 (4): 194-202.
Dash M & Sriranjan P. (2014): Maternal Over-Protection and Achievement Motivation among High School Students. Journal of Humanities and Social Science; 19 (5): 57-62.
Kashahu L, Dibra G, Osmanaga F & Bushati J. (2014): The relationship between parental demographics, parenting styles and student academic achievement. European Scientific Journal; 10 (13): 237-251.
Akhtar S, Rana SA & Tahir MA. (2013): Parenting Styles and Social Anxiety among Adolescents. New Horizons; 7 (2): 1-15.
Yousaf S. (2015): The Relation between Self-esteem, Parenting Style and Social Anxiety in Girls. Journal of Education and Practice; 6 (1): 140-142.
Shabnam B, Shaeeri MR & Mansour HJ. (2010): Social Phobia, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists); 7 (25): 75-83.
Sandhu GK & Sharma V. (2015): Social Withdrawal and Social Anxiety in Relation to Stylistic Parenting Dimensions in the Indian Cultural Context. Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences; 3 (3): 51-59.
Anhalt K & Morris TL. (2008): Parenting Characteristics Associated With Anxiety And Depression: A Multivariate Approach. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention; 5 (3): 122-137.
Steinberg L, Eisengart IB & Caufmann E (2006): Patterns of competence and adjustment from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent and Neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile Offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence; 16 (1): 47-58.
Dobre C, Rădulescu D, Gabor S, Gherasim AM & Vas R. (2014): Parenting style and child anxiety. Romanian Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Hypnosis; 1 (4): 1-13.
Spokas M & Heimberg RG (2009): Overprotective Parenting, Social Anxiety, and External Locus of Control: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships. Cognitive Therapy & Research; 33 (6): 543–551.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186