Role of AMCase in the Allergic and Non Allergic Ocular Pathologies
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 172-181
Received: May 29, 2015; Accepted: Aug. 28, 2015; Published: Oct. 14, 2015
Views 4206      Downloads 125
Author
Salvatore Musumeci, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania and Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, CNR, Catania, Italy
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Chitin is abundant in the structural coatings of fungi, insects, and parasitic nematodes, but it is not produced in mammals. The host defense against chitin-containing pathogens include production of chitinases. An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is produced in human epithelial cells of lower airways and conjunctiva via a Th2-specific, IL-13-dependent pathway and seems to be associated to asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. The role of AMCase in allergic disease is only at beginning and many issues open new possibilities for its control using specific inhibitors of AMCase activity or modulating its expression. In patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and with season allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) the level of AMCase activity in the tears was found significantly elevated when compare to healthy controls and the highest levels were found in VKC. When RNA was extracted by conjunctival epithelial cells of these patients, the Real Time PCR measurement confirmed that the mRNA expression correlates with tear AMCase activity and the expression was significantly higher in VKC and SAC respectively. Also Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of AMCase measurement were 100% respectively, addressing the use of AMCase assay in the biochemical diagnosis of VKC and SAC. Recent studies in rabbit, where a reactive uveitis was induced by LPS injection in eye’s anterior chamber, confirmed that increased AMCAse activity was measurable in tears and that epithelial cells of conjunctiva express specific mRNA. A well as it was previously demonstrated in experimental model of mouse asthma, the inflammatory reaction induced by LPS was controlled by the chitinase inhibitor and steroid, instilled at 3 hr interval in conjunctival sacs. In dry eye, another pathologies where the role of innate immunity is sustained by AMCase secretion, an increased AMCase activity was documented and the specific mRNA expressed by epithelial conjunctival cells. In this pathology the eye inflammation can be ascribed to a common mechanism mediated by AMCase, via a Th 2 specific, IL-13 dependent way. In synthesis AMCase may be considered an important mediator in the pathogenesis of Th2 inflammation eye’s diseases, suggesting its potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility.
Keywords
AMCase, Tears, Allergy, Dry Eye
To cite this article
Salvatore Musumeci, Role of AMCase in the Allergic and Non Allergic Ocular Pathologies, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 172-181. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150406.12
References
[1]
Debono M, Gordee RS. Antibiotics that inhibit fungal cell wall development. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1994; 48:471-97.
[2]
Neville AC, Parry DA, Woodhead-Galloway J. The chitin crystallite in arthropod cuticle. J Cell Sci. 1976; 21:73-82.
[3]
Araujo AC, Souto-Padron T, de Souza W. Cytochemical localization of carbohydrate residues in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1993;41:571-78.
[4]
Kawada M, Hachiya Y, Arihiro A, Mizoguchi E. Role of mammalian chitinases in inflammatory conditions. Keio J Med. 2007; 56(1):21-7.
[5]
Boot RG, Blommarart EF, Swart E et al. Identification of a novel acidic mammalian chitinase distinct from chitotriosidase, J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 6770.78.
[6]
Chou YT, Yao S, Czerwinski R, Fleming M, Krykbaev R, Xuan D, Zhou H, Brooks J, Fitz L, Strand J, Presman E, Lin L, Aulabaugh A, Huang X.Kinetic characterization of recombinant human acidic mammalian chitinase. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 11;45(14):4444-54.
[7]
Zhu Z, Zheng T, Homer RJ et al. Acidic mammalian chitinase in asthmatic Th2 inflammation and IL-13 pathway activation. Science. 2004;304:1678-82.
[8]
Donnelly LE, Barnes PJ. Acidic mammalian chitinase – a potential target for asthma theraphy. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2004; 25: 509-11.
[9]
Sakuda S, Isogai A, Matsumoto S, Suzuki A. Search for microbial insect growth regulators. II. Allosamidin, a novel Insect chitinase inhibitor. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1987; 40: 296-300.
[10]
Ramanathan MJ, Lee WK, Lane AP. Increased expression of acidic mammalian chitinase in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Am. J. Rhinol. 2006; 20: 330-35.
[11]
Chupp GL, Lee CG, Jarjour N, Shim YM, Holm CT, He S, Dziura JD, Reed J, Coyle AJ, Kiener P, Cullen M, Grandsaigne M, Dombret MC, Aubier M, Pretolani M, Elias JA. A chitinase-like protein in the lung and circulation of patients with severe asthma. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 2016-27.
[12]
Ono SJ. Vernal keratocojunctivitis: evidence for immunoglobulin E-dependent and immunoglobulin E-independent eosinophilia. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 2003; 33: 279-81
[13]
Metz DP, Hingorani M, Calder VL, Buckley RJ, Lightman SL. T-cell cytokines in chronic allergic eye disease J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1997; 100: 817-24.
[14]
Musumeci M, Maltese A, Bucolo C, Musumeci S. Chitinase levels in the tears of subjects with ocular allergies. Cornea 2008; 27: 168-73.
[15]
Bucolo C, Musumeci M, Maltese A, Drago F, Musumeci S. Effect of chitinase inhibitors on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rabbits. Pharmacology Research 2008 in press.
[16]
Trinh L, Brignole-Baudouin F, Raphaël M, Dupont-Monod S, Cassoux N, Lehoang P, Baudouin C. Th1 and Th2 responses on the ocular surface in uveitis identified by CCR4 and CCR5 conjunctival expression. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007; 144: 580-5.
[17]
Rao FV, Andersen OA, Vora KA, Demartino JA, van Aalten DM. Methylxanthine drugs are chitinase inhibitors: investigation of inhibition and binding modes. Chem Biol. 2005; 12: 973-80.
[18]
Undem BJ. Pharmacotheraphy of asthma. In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2006: 717-36.
[19]
Zhao J, Yeong LH, Wong WS. Dexamethasone alters bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome in a mouse asthma model. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007; 142: 219-29.
[20]
Reese TA, Liang HE, Tager AM, Luster AD, Van Rooijen N, Voehringer D, Locksley RM. Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature. 2007; 447: 92-6.
[21]
Shibata Y, Foster LA, Bradfield JF, Myrvik QN. Oral administration of chitin down-regulates serum IgE levels and lung eosinophilia in the allergic mouse. J Immunol. 2000; 164: 1314-21.
[22]
Strong P, Clark H, Reid K. Intranasal application of chitin microparticles down-regulates symptoms of allergic hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Aspergillus fumigatus in murine models of allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002; 32: 1794-800.
[23]
Burton OT, Zaccone P. The potential role of chitin in allergic reactions. Trends Immunol. 2007; 28: 419-22.
[24]
Zhu Z, Ma B, Zheng T, Homer RJ, Lee CG, Charo IF, Noble P, Elias JA. IL-13-induced chemokine responses in the lung: role of CCR2 in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling. J Immunol 2002; 168: 2953-62.
[25]
The definition and classification of dry eye diseases: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop Ocul Surf 2007; 5(2):75-92.
[26]
Moss SE, lein R, Klein BE. Prevalence and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118:1264-8.
[27]
Lee AJ, Lee J, Saw SM, Gazzard G, Koh D, Widjaja D, Tan DT. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86:1347-51.
[28]
Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Incidence of dry eye in an older population. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122:369-73.
[29]
Miljanovic B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, Schaumberg DA. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol 2007; 143:409-15.
[30]
Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: The interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea 1998; 17(6):584-589.
[31]
Altinors DD, Akça S, Akova YA, Bilezikçi B, Goto E, Dogru M, Tsubota K. Smoking associated with damage to the lipid layer of the ocular surface. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 141(6):1016-1021.
[32]
Epstein AB. Contact lens care products effect on corneal sensitivity and patient comfort. Eye Contact Lens. 2006; 32(3):128-32.
[33]
Bergqvist UO, Knave BG. Eye discomfort and work with visual display terminals. Scand J Work Environ Health 1994; 20:27-33.
[34]
Fenga C, Aragona P, Cacciola A, Spinella R, Di Nola C, Ferreri F, Rania L. Meibomian gland dysfunction and ocular discomfort in video display terminal workers. Eye. 2007 Oct 26.
[35]
O’Day DM, Horn JD. The Eye and Rheumatic Disease. In: Kelley WN editor. Textbook of Rheumatology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001: chapter 29.
[36]
Versura P, Campos EC. Menopause and dry eye. A possible relationship. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005; 20(5):289-98.
[37]
Willen CM, McGwin G, Liu B, Owsley C, Rosenstiel C. Efficacy of Cyclosporine 0.05% Ophthalmic Emulsion in Contact Lens Wearers With Dry Eyes. Eye Contact Lens. 2008; 34(1):43-45.
[38]
Narayanan S, Miller WL, McDermott AM. Conjunctival cytokine expression in symptomatic moderate dry eye subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006; 47(6):2445-50.
[39]
Stern ME, Siemasko KF, Gao J, Calonge M, Niederkorn JY, Pflugfelder SC. Evaluation of ocular surface inflammation in the presence of dry eye and allergic conjunctival disease. Ocul Surf. 2005; 3 (4 Suppl):S161-4.
[40]
Pflugfelder SC, Jones D, Ji Z, Afonso A, Monroy D. Altered cytokine balance in the tear fluid and conjunctiva of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Curr Eye Res. 1999; 19(3):201-11.
[41]
Corrales RM, Villarreal A, Farley W, Stern ME, Li DQ, Pflugfelder SC. Strain-related cytokine profiles on the murine ocular surface in response to desiccating stress. Cornea. 2007; 26(5):579-84.
[42]
Stern ME, Siemasko KF, Niederkorn JY. The Th1/Th2 paradigm in ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005; 5(5):446-50.
[43]
Hingorani M, Calder VL, Buckley RJ, Light man SL. The role of conjunctival epithelial cells in chronic ocular allergic disease. Exp Eye Res. 1998; 67(5):491-500.
[44]
Mahajan VM. Acute bacterial infections of the eye: their aetiology and treatment. Br J Ophthalmol. 1983; 67(3):191-4.
[45]
Seal DV, Barrett SP, McGill JI. Aetiology and treatment of acute bacterial infection of the external eye. Br J Ophthalmol. 1982; 66(6):357-60.
[46]
Hall AJ, Morroll S, Tighe P, Götz F, Falcone FH. Human chitotriosidase is expressed in the eye and lacrimal gland and has an antimicrobial spectrum different from lysozyme. Microbes Infect. 2007 Oct 22; doi: 10. 1016/j. micinf. 2007. 10. 007.
[47]
Van Eijk M, van Roomen CP, Renkema GH, Bussink AP, Andrews L, Blommaart EF, Sugar A, Verhoeven AJ, Boot RG, Aerts JM. Characterization of human phagocyte-derived chitotriosidase, a component of innate immunity. Int Immunol. 2005; 17(11):1505-12.
[48]
Gianfrancesco F, Musumeci S. The evolutionary conservation of the human chitotriosidase gene in rodents and primates. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004; 105(1):54-6.
[49]
Sanders NN, Eijsink VG, van den Pangaart PS, Joost van Neerven RJ, Simons PJ, De Smedt SC, Demeester J. Mucolytic activity of bacterial and human chitinases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007; 1770(5):839-46.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186