Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 139-142
Received: Jul. 12, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 27, 2015;
Published: Aug. 3, 2015
Views 4815 Downloads 84
Pushpalatha Manjunatha, Central Laboratory, Whitefield, Bangalore
Satish Kumar Amarnath, Head Quality, Compliance and Outreach Services, Manipal Cure and Care, Bangalore
P. K. Menon, Director, Center for Advanced Biomedical Research and Innovation, & Professor Research, Gulf Medical University
Arun Kumar H. R., Central Laboratory, Whitefield, Bangalore
Bala Satish M., Central Laboratory, Whitefield, Bangalore
S. J. Sabarish Babu, Central Laboratory, Whitefield, Bangalore
Analysis of the HCV genome has demonstrated extremely high heterogeneity in both structural and nonstructural coding regions and there are at least six different genotypes that have generally been divided into several subtypes. Of the 6 different Hepatitis genotypes, genotypes 1-3 is common worldwide, type 1a and 1b are the most common, accounting for about 60% of global infections. They predominate in Northern Europe, Southern and Eastern Europe, North America, and Japan respectively. Type 2 is less frequently represented than type 1. Type 3 is endemic in south-east Asia and is variably distributed in different countries. The determination of the infecting genotype is important for the prediction of response to antiviral treatment; genotype 1 is generally associated with a poor response to interferon alone, unlike genotypes 2 and 3 which are associated with better responses. A total of 238 plasma samples were received from patients attending gastroenterology department across India for treatment from March 2008 – Aug 2010. The samples were analyzed for viral load by real time PCR by Taqman principle. HCV genotyping was carried out on the samples whose viral load was more than 300IU/ml (limit of detection as per the kit). Qiagen RNA columns were used for RNA extraction, followed by reverse transcription (Promega) and genotyping was performed by conventional PCR. Out of 238 samples, 117 were positive for 3a, 44 samples were load negative, 43 samples were non- typable due to less viral load i.e. less than 1000 IU/ml. 26 were type 1a, 107 were 3a, and 11 were 2a.
Satish Kumar Amarnath,
P. K. Menon,
Arun Kumar H. R.,
Bala Satish M.,
S. J. Sabarish Babu,
Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus and Predominant Genotype in India, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2015, pp. 139-142.
Ulrike Seifert, Heike Liermann, Vito Racanelli, Anne Halenius, Manfred Wiese, Heiner Wedemeyer, Thomas Ruppert, Kay Rispeter, Peter Henklein, Alice Sijts, Hartmut Hengel, Peter-M. Kloetzel and Barbara Reherm. Hepatitis C virus mutation affects proteasomal epitope processing. J Clin Invest. 2004:114 (2):250–259.
Houghton M. Hepatitis C viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott - Raven, 1996:1035-105.
Jean-Franc¸ois Cantaloube, Pierre Gallian, Houssam Attoui, Philippe Biagini, Philippe De Micco, and Xavier de Lamballerie. Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Blood Donors from Southeast France. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Aug. 2005: 3624–3629.
Yi-Wei Tang a,b, Haijing Li a, Ann Roberto c Diane Warner c, Belinda Yen-Lieberman. Detection of hepatitis C virus by a user-developed reverse transcriptase-PCR and use of ampliﬁcation products for subsequent genotyping. Journal of Clinical Virology 2004, 31: 148–152.
Amjad Ali1, Habib Ahmed, Muhammad Idrees. Molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw of Pakistan. Virology Journal 2010: 7:203.
Sandra S. Richter Journal Clinical Microbiology December 2002, vol. 40 no. 12: 4407-4412.
Ping Qiu, Xiao-Yan Cai, Wei Ding, Qing Zhang, Ellie D Norris and Jonathan R Greene HCV genotyping using statistical classification approach. Journal of Biomedical Science 2009, 16:62 doi:10.1186/1423-0127-16-62.
Raymond P. Podzorski, PhD. Molecular Testing in the Diagnosis and Management of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med - 2002;126:285 – 290.
Stephen L. Chen 1 2 and Timothy R. Morgan. The Natural History of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Int J Med Sci. 2006; 3(2): 47 – 52.
Yoann Morice, Jean-Franc¸ois Cantaloube, Ste´phanie Beaucourt, Laetitia Barbotte, Sija De Gendt, Fernando Lopes Goncales, Lesley Butterworth, Graham Cooksley, Robert G. Gish, Michel Beaugrand, Fabian Fay, Oscar Fay, Jorge E. Gonzalez, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Daniel Dhumeaux, Bart Vanderborght, Lieven Stuyver, Erwin Sablon, Xavier de Lamballerie, and Jean-Michel Pawlotsky. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 3a in Injecting Drug Users.Journal of Medical Virology 2006, 78:1296–1303.
S. Chaudhuria, S. Dasa, A. Chowdhuryc, A. Santrac,S.K. Bhattacharyab,d, T.N. Naik Molecular epidemiology of HCV infection among acute and chronic liver disease patients in Kolkata, India. Journal of Clinical Virology 2005, 32: 38–46.
Tomoyoshi ohno, Masashi Mizokami, Rong-Rong Wu, Mohamed G. Saleh, Ken-Ichi ohba, Etsuro Orito, Motokazu Mukaide, Roger Williams, and Johnson Y. N. Lau. New Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotyping System That Allows for Identification of HCV Genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Jan. 1997, Vol. 35, No. 1: 201–207.
Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014 Nov;61(1 Suppl):S45-57.
Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology. 2013 Apr;57(4):1333-42.
Scott D. Holmberg, Hepatitis C Virus and the Infectious Diseases Community. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(S1):S10–15.