Exercise Training and Rehabilitation of the Brain in Parkinson’s Disease
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2013, Pages: 11-17
Received: Mar. 23, 2013; Published: Mar. 10, 2013
Views 3302      Downloads 170
Author
Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences. Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences. Jordan University of Science and Technology.22110, Irbid – Jordan
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases that is clinically manifested by of cardinal motor symptoms including, tremor and rigidity. The known cause of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra in the brain. There are motor and non motor features of this disease with heterogenic complaints. The main treatment available for PD is levodopa as dopamine replacement therapy. However, after few years of treatment, PD patients experience levodopa-resistant symptoms. Other neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of PD have become a widely performed. These surgical procedures stimulate the dopaminergic neurons to produce more dopamine, but won’t halt the progression of degeneration of these cells. Over the last years, many studies focused on the effect of physical therapy on PD, most of these studies have investigated the rehabilitation effects on musculoskeletal system, like gait, balance, and strength. Other studies focused on the effect of physiotherapy on non motor feature in PD, like quality of life. However, there is limited information about the beneficial impact of exercise on the brain of PD patients. In this review, we provide a brief review of the literature on exercise effects on the brain of PD. The present review was designed to gain more insight into the mechanism of improvement in PD patients with exercise and to answer in part the question of how exercise training rehabilitates the brain in PD patients.
Keywords
Exercise, Brain, Parkinson’s disease
To cite this article
Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Exercise Training and Rehabilitation of the Brain in Parkinson’s Disease, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013, pp. 11-17. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20130202.12
References
[1]
Lima LO, Rodrigues-de-Paula F. Muscular power training: a new perspective in physical therapy approach of Parkinson's disease. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2012,16(2):173-4.
[2]
Fetsko LA, Xu R, Wang Y. Effects of age and dopamine D2L receptor-deficiency on motor and learning func-tions.Neurobiol Aging 2005;26(4):521-30.
[3]
Ghosh B, Mishra A, Sengupta P. Is Parkinson's disease a homogeneous disorder--what is the burden of Parkinson's disease in India. J Indian Med Assoc. 2005;103(3):146, 148, 150 passim.
[4]
Balash Y, Peretz C, Leibovich G, Herman T, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. Falls in outpatients with Parkinson's disease Fre-quency, impact and identifying factors. J Neurol. 2005;1310.
[5]
Contreras A, Grandas F. Risk factors for freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2012 Sep 15;320(1-2):66-71
[6]
Bryant MS, Rintala DH, Hou JG, et al. The relation of falls to fatigue, depression and daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. Eur Neurol. 2012;67(6):326-30.
[7]
Agari T, Date I. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of abnormal posture and gait disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52(7):470-4.
[8]
Pohl M, Rockstroh G, Ruckriem S, Mrass G, Mehrholz J. Immediate effects of speed-dependent treadmill training on gait parameters in early Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84(12):1760-6.
[9]
Doshay LJ. Current concepts in therapy. Treatment of Par-kinson's disease. 1. Medicinal therapy. 2. N Engl J Med. 1961;264:1097-9.
[10]
Chen H, Zhang SM, Schwarzschild MA, Hernan MA, Ascherio A. Physical activity and the risk of Parkinson dis-ease. Neurology 2005;64:664–669.
[11]
Thacker EL, Chen H, Patel AV, et al. Recreational physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease.Mov Dis-ord 2008;23:69–74. [12] Xu Q, Park Y, Huang X, et al. Physical activities and future risk of Parkinson dis-ease. Neurology2010;75:341–348.
[12]
Pitzer MR, Sortwell CE, Daley BF, McGuire SO, Marchio-nini D, Fleming M, Collier TJ. 2003. Angiogenic and neuro-trophic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165): studies of grafted and cultured embryonic ven-tral mesencephalic cells. ExpNeurol 182(2):435-45.
[13]
Silverman WF, Krum JM, Mani N, Rosenstein JM. 1999. Vascular, glial and neuronal effects of vascular endothelial growth factor in mesencephalic explant cultures. Neuros-cience 90(4):1529-41.
[14]
Yasuhara T, Shingo T, Date I. 2004a. The potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the central nervous system. Rev Neurosci 15(4):293-307.
[15]
Al-Jarrah M, Jamous M, Al Zailaey K, et al. Endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis in the brain of chronic/progressive mouse model of Parkinson's Disease. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010;26(4):369-73.
[16]
Da Prada M, Kettler R, Keller HH, Burkard WP, Muggli-Maniglio D, Haefely WE. 1989. Neurochemical profile of moclobemide, a short-acting and reversible inhibitor of mo-noamine oxidase type A. J PharmacolExpTher 248(1):400-14.
[17]
Barroso-Chinea P, Cruz-Muros I, Aymerich MS, Rodriguez-Diaz M, Afonso-Oramas D, Lanciego JL, Gonzalez-Hernandez T. 2005.Striatal expression of GDNF and diffe-rential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic cells.Eur J Neurosci 21(7):1815-27.
[18]
Campos FL, Cristovão AC, Rocha SM, et al. GDNF Contributes to Oestrogen-Mediated Protection of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Nov;24(11):1386-97
[19]
Airaksinen MS, Saarma M. 2002. The GDNF family: sig-nalling, biological functions and therapeutic value. Nat Rev Neurosci 3(5):383-94.
[20]
Anastasía A, Wojnacki J, de Erausquin GA, et al. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor is essential for electrocon-vulsive shock-induced neuroprotection in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2011,10,(195):100-11.
[21]
Bowenkamp KE, David D, Lapchak PL, et al. 6-hydroxydopamine induces the loss of the dopaminergic phenotype in substantianigra neurons of the rat. A possible mechanism for restoration of the nigrostriatal circuit mediated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.Exp Brain Res. 1996,111(1):1-7.
[22]
Duarte EP, Curcio M, Canzoniero LM, et al. Neuroprotection by GDNF in the ischemic brain. Growth Factors. 2012,30(4):242-57.
[23]
Sun M, Kong L, Wang X, Lu XG, Gao Q, Geller AI. Com-parison of the capability of GDNF, BDNF, or both, to protect nigrostriatal neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2005.1052(2):119-29.
[24]
Gash DM, Zhang Z, Ovadia A, CassWA, Yi A, Simmerman L, Russell D, Martin D, Lapchak PA, Collins F and others. Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF. Nature. 1996,380(6571):252-5.
[25]
Zheng JS, Tang LL, Zheng SS, Zhan RY, Zhou YQ, Gou-dreau J, Kaufman D, Chen AF. Delayed gene therapy of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is efficacious in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005. 134(1):155-61.
[26]
Grondin R, Zhang Z, Yi A, Cass WA, Maswood N, Ander-sen AH, Elsberry DD, Klein MC, Gerhardt GA, Gash DM. Chronic, controlled GDNF infusion promotes structural and functional recovery in advanced parkinsonian monkeys. Brain. 2002. 125(10):2191-201.
[27]
Du Y, Zhang X, Tao Q, Chen S, Le W. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Vector-Mediated Glial Cell Line-Derived Neu-rotrophic Factor Gene Transfer Induces Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration in a Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Impairment Animal Model ofParkinson's Disease. Neurode-gener Dis. 2012 (24): 1-16
[28]
Gill SS, Patel NK, Hotton GR, O'Sullivan K, McCarter R, Bunnage M, Brooks DJ, Svendsen CN, Heywood P. Direct brain infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson disease. Nat Med. 2003, 9(5):589-95.
[29]
Love S, Plaha P, Patel NK, Hotton GR, Brooks DJ, Gill SS. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induces neuronal sprouting in human brain. Nat Med 2005, 11(7):703-4.
[30]
Patel NK, Bunnage M, Plaha P, Svendsen CN, Heywood P, Gill SS. Intraputamenal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in PD: a two-year outcome study. Ann Neurol. 2005, 57(2):298-302.
[31]
Slevin JT, Gerhardt GA, Smith CD, Gash DM, Kryscio R, Young B. Improvement of bilateral motor functions in pa-tients with Parkinson disease through the unilateral intrapu-taminal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurosurg 2005,102(2):216-22.
[32]
Erickson KI, Raji CA, Lopez OL, et al. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood: The Cardi-ovascular Health Study. Neurology 2010;75:1415–1422.
[33]
Meeusen, R; Smolders, I; Sarre, S; et al. Endurance training effects on neurotransmitter release in rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica vol. 1997, 159 (4): 335-341
[34]
Tuon T, Valvassori SS, Lopes-Borges J, et al. Physical train-ing exerts neuroprotective effects in the regulation of neuro-chemical factors in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2012 ;227:305-12.
[35]
Philipp Klaissle, Anne Lesemann, Petra Huehnchen, Andreas Hermann, Alexander Storch, Barbara Steiner. Physical activity and environmental enrichment regulate the generation of neural precursors in the adult mouse substantia nigra in a dopamine-dependent manner. BMC Neurosci. 2012; 13: 132.
[36]
Al-Jarrah MD, Jamous M. Effect of endurance exercise training on the expression of GFAP, S100B, and NSE in the striatum of chronic/progressive mouse model of Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation. 2011;28(4):359-63.
[37]
Dutra MF, Jaeger M, Ilha J, et al. Exercise improves motor deficits and alters striatal GFAP expression in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurol Sci. 2012;33(5):1137-44.
[38]
Fisher BE, Wu AD, Salem GJ, et al. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(7):1221-9.
[39]
Nozaki T, Sugiyama K, Yagi S, et al. Effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation during exercise on the mesolimbocortical dopaminergic region inParkinson's disease: a positron emission tomography study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012 Dec 5.
[40]
Malú G. Tansey and Matthew S. Goldberg. Neuroinflamma-tion in Parkinson’s disease: its role in neuronal death and implications for therapeutic intervention. Neurobiol Dis. 2010; 37(3): 510–518
[41]
Carina C. Ferrari, Rodolfo Tarelli. Parkinson's Disease and Systemic Inflammation. Parkinsons Dis. 2011; 2011
[42]
A.Machado, A. J. Herrera, J. L. Venero, M. Santiago, R. M. De Pablos, R. F. Villar´an, A. M. Espinosa-Oliva, S. Arg¨uelles, M. Sarmiento. M. J. Delgado-Cort´es, R.Mauri˜no, and J. Cano. Peripheral inflammation increases the damage in animal models of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration: Possible implication in Parkinson's dis-ease incidence. Parkinson’s Disease, 2011, 2011:1-10.
[43]
Perry VH, Nicoll JA, Holmes C. Microglia in neurodege-nerative disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 ;6(4):193-201.
[44]
McGeer PL, Itagaki S, Boyes BE, McGeer EG. Reactive microglias are positive for HLA-DR in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease brains. Neurolo-gy. 1988 ;38(8):1285-91.
[45]
W. G. Kim, R. P. Mohney, B. Wilson, G. H. Jeohn, B. Liu, and J. S. Hong, "Regional difference in susceptibility to li-popolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in the rat brain: role of microglia," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 6309–6316, 2000.
[46]
Honglei Chen, Eilis J. O’Reilly, Michael A. Schwarzschild, and Alberto Ascherio Peripheral Inflammatory Biomarkers and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:90–95.
[47]
Y. He, S. Appel, and W. Le, "Minocycline inhibits microglial activation and protects nigral cells after 6-hydroxydopamine injection into mouse striatum," Brain Research, vol. 909, no. 1-2, pp. 187–193, 2001.
[48]
Andreas Hald, Julie Lotharius. Oxidative stress and in-flammation in Parkinson's disease: is there a causal link? Experimental Neurology, Volume 193, Issue 2, June 2005, Pages 279-290.
[49]
R. Sánchez-Pernaute, A. Ferree, O. Cooper, M. Yu, A. L. Brownell, and O. Isacson, "Selective COX-2 inhibition pre-vents progressive dopamine neuron degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease," Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 1, article 6, 2004.
[50]
D. C. Wu, V. Jackson-Lewis, M. Vila et al., "Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1763–1771, 2002.
[51]
De-Hyung Lee , Ralf Gold and Ralf A. Linker Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage in Multiple Sclerosis and Neurodege-nerative Diseases: Therapeutic Modulation via Fumaric Acid Esters. Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(9):11783-803
[52]
Zafar I. Alam, Susan E. Daniel, Andrew J. Lees, Davjd C. Marsden, Peter Jenner, and Barry Halliwell. A Generalised Increase in Protein Carbonyls in the Brain in Parkinson’s but Not Incidental Lewy Body Disease. J. Neurochem., Vol. 69, No. 3, 1997.
[53]
Jenner P. Dopamine agonists, receptor selectivity and dyskinesia induction in Parkinson's disease. Curr Opin Neu-rol, 2003 Dec;16 Suppl 1:S3-7.
[54]
Juan M. SAAVEDRA, Enrique SÁNCHEZ-LEMUS, Julius BENICKY. Blockade of brain angiotensin II AT1 receptors ameliorates stress, anxiety, brain inflammation and ischemia: Therapeutic implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 January ; 36(1): 1–18.
[55]
Archer T, Fredriksson A, Schütz E, Kostrzewa RM. Influ-ence of physical exercise on neuroimmunological functioning and health: aging and stress. Neurotox Res. 2011 Jul;20(1):69-83.
[56]
Wu SY, Wang TF, Yu L, Jen CJ, Chuang JI, Wu FS, Wu CW, Kuo YM. Running exercise protects the substantia nigra do-paminergic neurons against inflammation-induced degene-ration via the activation of BDNF signaling pathway. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jan;25(1):135-46.
[57]
Johnston LC, Su X, Maguire-Zeiss K, Horovitz K, Ankou-dinova I, Guschin D, Hadaczek P, Federoff HJ, Bankiewicz K, Forsayeth J. Human interleukin-10 gene transfer is pro-tective in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Mol Ther. 2008 August ; 16(8): 1392–1399.
[58]
Takao Nozaki, Kenji Sugiyama, Shunsuke Yagi, Etsuji Yo-shikawa,Toshihiko Kanno, Tetsuya Asakawa, Tae Ito, Tatsuhiro Terada, Hiroki Namba and Yasuomi Ouch .Effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation during ex-ercise on the mesolimbocortical dopaminergic region in Parkinson's disease: a positron emission tomography study. J cereb Blood Flow 2012 Dec :183.
[59]
Patki G, Lau YS. Impact of exercise on mitochondrial tran-scription factor expression and damage in the striatum of a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Nov 21;505(3):268-72.
[60]
Bloomer RJ, Schilling BK, Karlage RE, Ledoux MS, Pfeiffer RF, Callegari J. Effect of resistance training on blood oxidative stress in Parkinson disease. med sci sports exerc, 2008 aug;40 (8) 1385-9.
[61]
Frazzitta G, Bertotti G, Riboldazzi G, Turla M, Uccellini D, Boveri N, Guaglio G, Perini M, Comi C, Balbi P, Maestri R. Effectiveness of intensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment on disease progression in parkinsonian patients: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 2011: 144-150.
[62]
Beall E, Lowe M, Alberts JL, Frankemolle AM, Thota AK, Shah C, Phillips MD.The Effect of Forced-Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease on Motor Cortex Functional Connectivity. Brain Connect. 2013 Jan 14.
[63]
Al-Jarrah M, Pothakos K, Novikova L, Smirnova IV, Kurz MJ, Stehno-Bittel L, Lau YS. Endurance exercise promotes cardiorespiratory rehabilitation without neurorestoration in the chronic mouse model of parkinsonism with severe neu-rodegeneration. Neuroscience. 2007 Oct 12;149(1):28-37.
[64]
Thomas Mu¨ller and Siegfried Muhlack. Effect of exercise on reactivity and motor behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81:747e753
[65]
Arthur F. Kramer, Kirk I. Erickson, and Stanley J. Colcombe. Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. J Appl Physiol, 2006, 101: 1237–1242.
[66]
Keleshian VL, Modi HR, Rapoport SI, Rao JS . Aging is associated with altered inflammatory, arachidonic acid cas-cade and synaptic markers, influenced by epigenetic mod-ifications, in the human frontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2013 Jan 22.
[67]
K.I. Erickson, C.A. Raji, O.L. Lopez, J.T. Becker, C. Rosano, A.B. Newman, H.M. Gach, P.M. Thompson, A.J. Ho, L.H. Kuller. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Neurology 75 October 19, 2010.
[68]
Weintraub D, Doshi J, Koka D, Davatzikos C, Siderowf AD, Duda JE, Wolk DA, Moberg PJ, Xie SX, Clark CM. Neuro-degeneration across stages of cognitive decline in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2011 December ; 68(12): 1562–1568.
[69]
Kirk I. Erickson, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika Shaurya Pra-kash, Chandramallika Basak , Amanda Szabo,Laura Chad-dock, Jennifer S. Kim, Susie Heo, Heloisa Alves, Siobhan M. White, Thomas R. Wojcicki,Emily Mailey, Victoria J. Vieira, Stephen A. Martin, Brandt D. Pence, Jeffrey A. Woods, Edward McAuley and Arthur F. Kramer. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. PNAS , 2011. 108, 7, 3017–3022.
[70]
Michelle W. Voss, Lindsay S. Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Arthur F. Kramer. Exercise, brain, and cognition across the life span. J Appl Physiol. 2011 November; 111(5): 1505–1513.
[71]
K.I. Erickson, C.A. Raji, O.L. Lopez, J.T. Becker, C. Rosano, A.B. Newman, H.M. Gach, P.M. Thompson, A.J. Ho, L.H. Kuller. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood. Neurology. 2010 October 19; 75(16): 1415–1422.
[72]
Laura D. Baker, Laura L. Frank, Karen Foster-Schubert, Pattie S. Green, Charles W. Wilkinson, Anne McTiernan, Stephen R. Plymate, Mark A. Fishel, G. Stennis Watson, Brenna A. Cholerton, Glen E.Duncan, Pankaj D. Mehta, and Suzanne Craft. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cogni-tive Impairment: A Controlled Trial. Arch Neurol. 2010 January ; 67(1): 71–79.
[73]
F Gomeza-Pinilla. V So, J Pl Kisslak. Spatial learning in-duces neurotrophin receptor and synapsin I in the hippo-campus. Brain Res. 2001:13–19.
[74]
Shoshanna Vaynman, Zhe Ying, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla. Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition Eur J NeuroSci .2004 Nov;20(10):2580-90.
[75]
Yamada K, Mizuno M, Nabeshima T. Role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in learning and memory. Life Sci, 2002 Jan 4;70(7):735-44.
[76]
Saur L, Baptista PP, de Senna PN, Paim MF, Nascimento PD, Ilha J, Bagatini PB, Achaval M, Xavier LL. Physical exercise increases GFAP expression and induces morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes. Brain Struct Funct. 2013 Jan 4.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186