Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases that is clinically manifested by of cardinal motor symptoms including, tremor and rigidity. The known cause of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra in the brain. There are motor and non motor features of this disease with heterogenic complaints. The main treatment available for PD is levodopa as dopamine replacement therapy. However, after few years of treatment, PD patients experience levodopa-resistant symptoms. Other neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of PD have become a widely performed. These surgical procedures stimulate the dopaminergic neurons to produce more dopamine, but won’t halt the progression of degeneration of these cells. Over the last years, many studies focused on the effect of physical therapy on PD, most of these studies have investigated the rehabilitation effects on musculoskeletal system, like gait, balance, and strength. Other studies focused on the effect of physiotherapy on non motor feature in PD, like quality of life. However, there is limited information about the beneficial impact of exercise on the brain of PD patients. In this review, we provide a brief review of the literature on exercise effects on the brain of PD. The present review was designed to gain more insight into the mechanism of improvement in PD patients with exercise and to answer in part the question of how exercise training rehabilitates the brain in PD patients.
Exercise Training and Rehabilitation of the Brain in Parkinson’s Disease, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2013, pp. 11-17.
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