The Association Between Cancer Incidence, HIV Prevalence, and Gross Domestic Product in Uganda
Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2020, Pages: 19-26
Received: Jan. 25, 2020;
Accepted: Feb. 10, 2020;
Published: Feb. 14, 2020
Views 317 Downloads 127
Kelvin Roland Mubiru, Department of Statistical Methods and Actuarial Science, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Hellen Namawejje, Department of Statistical Methods and Actuarial Science, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Leonard Atuhaire, Department of Planning and Applied Statistics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
This research examines the association of cancer incidence, HIV prevalence and gross domestic product in Uganda. The study utilised secondary data were Cancer data was obtained from the Kampala Cancer Registry, Uganda. Gross domestic product data from IMF’s World Economic Outlook and AIDS data from UNAIDS 2017 report. Multivariate time series analysis method was used covering a period from 1993 -2014. The research findings indicate that the Non-AIDS defining cancers, that is, stomach (p=0.000), eye (p=0.000), liver (p=0.000) and prostate (p=0.000) had a long run positive significant relationship with HIV prevalence while colon (p=0.002), lung (p=0.00) and breast (p=0.004) had a negative significant relationship with HIV prevalence. Also breast (p=0.00) and prostate (p=0.001) had a positive significant relationship with Gross domestic product while cancer of the lung (p=0.000) had a negative significant relationship with gross domestic product in Uganda. AIDS defining cancers such as Non-Hodgkin cancer (p=0.001) had a long run positive significant relationship with HIV prevalence while cervical (p=0.000) had a negative significant relationship with HIV prevalence. Cervical cancer (p=0.014) had a positive significant relationship with Gross domestic product in Uganda. The study recommends government to enhance policies that reduce HIV since it was observed that HIV had a significant relationship with cancer.
Kelvin Roland Mubiru,
The Association Between Cancer Incidence, HIV Prevalence, and Gross Domestic Product in Uganda, Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
Vol. 8, No. 1,
2020, pp. 19-26.
American Cancer Society. (2019). Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.
UNAIDS. Global AIDS update 2016 http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/global-AIDS-update-2016_en.pdf Accessed 8 February 2020.
Marie-Josephe Horner, Steady Chasimpha, Adrian Spoerri, Jessie Edwards, (2019). High Cancer Burden among Antiretroviral Therapy users in Malawi: A record linkage study of observational Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cohorts and Cancer Registry Data. Clin Infect Dis., 69 (5): 829-835.
Hernandez-Ramirez RU, Shiels MS, Dubrow R, Engels EA. Cancer risk in HIV-infected people in the USA from 1996 to 2012: a population-based, registry-linkage study. Lancet HIV 2017; 4: e495–e504.
World Health Organization. (2017). Facts About Cancer in Uganda. Retrieved from http://health.go.ug/sites/default/files/Cancer Booklet.pdf
Chen W, Zheng R, Zhang S, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013. Cancer Lett. 2017; 401: 63–71. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.04.024.
Chen SL, Wang SC, Ho CJ, et al. Prostate cancer mortality-to-incidence ratios are associated with cancer care disparities in 35 countries. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 40003. doi: 10.1038/srep40003.
Zhixun Yang, Rongshou Zeng, Siwei Zhang, Hongmei Zeng, Changfa Xia, Li Wang, Yanhong Wang and Wanging Chen (2017). Comparison of Cancer incidence and mortality in three GDP per capita levels in China, 2013, Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, 29 (5): 385-394.
Jemal, A., Bray, F., Forman, D., O’Brien, M., Ferlay, J., Center, M., & Parkin, D. M. (2012). Cancer burden in Africa and opportunities for prevention. Cancer, 118 (18), 4372–4384. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27410
Juan B. (2013). HIV & AIDS Information : Liver cancer often diagnosed late with poor survival in people with HIV. Retrieved September 6, 2018, from http://www.aidsmap.com/Liver- cancer-often-diagnosed-late-with-poor-survival-in-people-with-HIV/page/2771705/
IMF. (2017). GDP by Country | Statistics from IMF, 1980-2021 - Hawaii Open Data. Retrieved. September 15, 2017, from http://hawaii.knoema.com/tbocwag/gdp-by-country-statistics-from-imf-1980-2021/country=Uganda
Zou, X. (2018). VECM Model Analysis of Carbon Emissions, GDP, and International Crude Oil Prices. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, 2018, 1–11.
Sloan DJ, van Oosterhout JJ, Malisita K, et al. (2013) Evidence of improving antiretroviral therapy treatment delays: an analysis of eight years of programmatic outcomes in Blantyre, Malawi. BMC Public Health 2013.
UNAIDS (2017), UNAIDS DATA 2017 Publication. https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2017/2017_data_book.
Yang, Z., Zheng, R., Zhang, S., Zeng, H., Xia, C., Li, H., … Chen, W. (2017). Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality in three GDP per capita levels in China, 2013. Chinese Journal of Cancer Research = Chung-Kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu, 29 (5), 385–394.
Ghebre, R. G., Grover, S., Xu, M. J., Chuang, L. T., & Simonds, H. (2017). Cervical cancer control in HIV-infected women: Past, present and future. Gynecologic Oncology Reports, 21, 101–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2017.07.009
Ferlay, J., Shin, H.-R., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C., & Parkin, D. M. (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer, 127 (12), 2893–2917. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
Wabinga, H. R., Nambooze, S., Amulen, P. M., Okello, C., Mbus, L., & Parkin, D. M. (2014). Trends in the incidence of cancer in Kampala, Uganda 1991-2010. International Journal of Cancer, 135 (2), 432–439. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28661
Sigel, K., Makinson, A., & Thaler, J. (2017). Lung cancer in persons with HIV. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 12 (1), 31–38 https://doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000326
Polesel, J., Clifford, G. M., Rickenbach, M., Dal Maso, L., Battegay, M., Bouchardy, C., Franceschi, S. (2008). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS, 22 (2), 301–306.