Evaluation of Characteristics of Activated Carbon from Rice Husk Impregnated with Zinc Chloride and Phosphoric Acid
American Journal of Physical Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 94-98
Received: Oct. 5, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 14, 2016; Published: Nov. 10, 2016
Views 3548      Downloads 142
Mohamed Ahiduzzaman, Department of Agro-processing, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Abul K. M. Sadrul Islam, Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
Activated carbon is essential in adsorption process of different dye and metals from waste streams. The molecular size of different species is different. So they could have some restriction to move into the pore in activated carbons smaller than their molecule size. In this regards a study is conducted to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of zinc chloride and phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon. Methylene blue (MB) and nitrogen having two distinct molecular sizes are adsorbed to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated carbons. Nitrogen molecules have access into smaller pores compared to MB molecules. Nitrogen adsorption test shows higher specific surface area compared to MB adsorption test. In methylene adsorption test, phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon shows higher specific surface area (646 m2 g-1) compared to that of zinc chloride impregnated activated carbon (599 m2 g-1). In contrast zinc chloride shows higher specific surface area (927 m2 g-1) compared to that of phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon (718 m2 g-1) in liquid nitrogen adsorption test. This happened because zinc chloride could develop smaller size pore in higher degree compared phosphoric acid during activation process. Results show that development of pore size is affected by two different agents. MB and nitrogen adsorption test reveals that zinc chloride activated material produced more number of small pores compared to phosphoric acid activated material. From this study it is concluded that the desired size of pores in activated carbon could be achieved for adsorption of species with specific molecular diameter by varying the type of activation agents.
Activated Carbon, BET Surface Area, Activation Agent, SEM Image, Contact Time Study
To cite this article
Mohamed Ahiduzzaman, Abul K. M. Sadrul Islam, Evaluation of Characteristics of Activated Carbon from Rice Husk Impregnated with Zinc Chloride and Phosphoric Acid, American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 94-98. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20160505.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Pelekani, C. and V. L. Snoeyink, Competitive adsorption between atrazine and methylene blue on activated carbon: the importance of pore size distribution. Carbon. Vol. 38, No. 10, pp. 1423-1436, 2000.
Pelekani, C. and V. L. Snoeyink, A kinetic and equilibrium study of competitive adsorption between atrazine and Congo red dye on activated carbon: the importance of pore size distribution. Carbon. Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 25-37, 2001.
Lorenc-Grabowska, E., M. A. Diez, and G. Gryglewicz, Influence of pore size distribution on the adsorption of phenol on PET-based activated carbons. Journal of colloid and interface science. Vol. 469, 205-212, 2016.
Sethia, G. and A. Sayari, Comprehensive study of ultra-microporous nitrogen-doped activated carbon for CO 2 capture. Carbon. Vol. 93, 68-80, 2015.
Sethia, G. and A. Sayari, Activated carbon with optimum pore size distribution for hydrogen storage. Carbon. Vol. 99, 289-294, 2016.
Huang, M. C., C. H. Chou, and H. Teng, Pore‐size effects on activated‐carbon capacities for volatile organic compound adsorption. AIChE journal. Vol. 48, No. 8, pp. 1804-1810, 2002.
Li, L., P. A. Quinlivan, and D. R. U. Knappe, Effects of activated carbon surface chemistry and pore structure on the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Carbon. Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 2085-2100, 2002.
Ding, L., V. L. Snoeyink, B. J. Mariñas, Z. Yue, and J. Economy, Effects of powdered activated carbon pore size distribution on the competitive adsorption of aqueous atrazine and natural organic matter. Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 1227-1231, 2008.
Sevilla, M. and A. B. Fuertes, CO 2 adsorption by activated templated carbons. Journal of colloid and interface science. Vol. 366, No. 1, pp. 147-154, 2012.
Singh, N. and C. Balomajumder, Simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide from aqueous solution by adsorption onto surface modified activated carbon prepared from coconut shell. Journal of Water Process Engineering. Vol. 9, 233-245, 2016.
Ojo, O. O. Effect of base material on the pore size distribution and surface area of activated carbon. in Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publ, 2009.
Pelekani, C. and V. L. Snoeyink, Competitive adsorption in natural water: role of activated carbon pore size. Water Research. Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 1209-1219, 1999.
Lee, S. Y. and S. J. Park, Determination of the optimal pore size for improved CO 2 adsorption in activated carbon fibers. Journal of colloid and interface science. Vol. 389, No. 1, pp. 230-235, 2013.
Laine, J. and A. Calafat, Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from coconut shell impregnated with phosphoric acid. Carbon. Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 191-195, 1989.
Girgis, B. S. and M. F. Ishak, Activated carbon from cotton stalks by impregnation with phosphoric acid. Materials Letters. Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 107-114, 1999.
Ahmedna, M., W. E. Marshall, and R. M. Rao, Surface properties of granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products and their effects on raw sugar decolorization. Bioresource technology. Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 103-112, 2000.
Kadirvelu, K., M. Kavipriya, C. Karthika, M. Radhika, N. Vennilamani, and S. Pattabhi, Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions. Bioresource technology. Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. 129-132, 2003.
Narmata, D. and A. Manzoor, Dye adsorption by a new low cost material Congo red. Ind J Environ Protec. Vol. 13, 570-576, 1993.
Wigmans, T., Industrial aspects of production and use of activated carbons. Carbon. Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 13-22, 1989.
Ibarra, J. V., R. Moliner, and J. M. Palacios, Catalytic effects of zinc chloride in the pyrolysis of spanish high sulphur coals. Fuel. Vol. 70, No. 6, pp. 727-732, 1991.
Munoz-Guillena, M. J., M. J. Illán-Gómez, J. M. Martin-Martinez, A. Linares-Solano, and C. Salinas-Martinez de Lecea, Activated carbons from Spanish coals. 1. Two-stage carbon dioxide activation. Energy & fuels. Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 9-15, 1992.
Jagtoyen, M. and F. Derbyshire, Some considerations of the origins of porosity in carbons from chemically activated wood. Carbon. Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 1185-1192, 1993.
Teng, H. and H. C. Lin, Activated carbon production from low ash subbituminous coal with CO2 activation. AIChE Journal. Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 1170-1177, 1998.
Dubinin, M. M., Fundamentals of the theory of adsorption in micropores of carbon adsorbents: characteristics of their adsorption properties and microporous structures. Carbon. Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 457-467, 1989.
Sing, K. S. W., D. H. Everett, R. A. W. Haul, L. Moscou, R. A. Pierotti, J. Rouquerol, and T. Siemieniewska, Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (Recommendations 1984). Pure and applied chemistry. Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 603-619, 1985.
Guettai, N. and H. A. Amar, Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange in presence of titanium dioxide in aqueous suspension. Part I: Parametric study. Desalination. Vol. 185, No. 1, pp. 427-437, 2005.
Rys, P. and H. Zollinger, Fundamentals of the Chemistry and Application of Dyes, Wiley-Interscience New York, 1972.
Zollinger, H., Color chemistry: syntheses, properties, and applications of organic dyes and pigments, Wiley-VCH Weinheim, 2003.
Dai, S., W. Song, Y. Zhuang, and H. Yan. Biotechnical treatment of wastewater containing azo dyes. in Proceedings of the 4th Mainland–Taiwan Environmental Technology Seminar, 1996.
Dai, S., Y. Zhuang, L. Chen, and L. Chen, Study on the relationship between structure of synthetic organic chemicals and their biodegradability. Environ. Chem. Vol. 14, 354-367, 1995.
Chung, K., G. E. Fulk, and A. W. Andrews, Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 641-648, 1981.
Ahiduzzaman, M. and A. S. Islam, Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation. SpringerPlus. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1248, 2016.
Ahiduzzaman, M., Studies and investigation on extraction of energy and value-added product from rice husk, Ph.D. Thesis in Mechanical and Chemical Engineering Department, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 2011.
Brunauer, S., P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller, Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Journal of the American chemical society. Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 309-319, 1938.
Liou, T. H., Development of mesoporous structure and high adsorption capacity of biomass-based activated carbon by phosphoric acid and zinc chloride activation. Chemical Engineering Journal. Vol. 158, No. 2, pp. 129-142, 2010.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186