Adsorption of Hg2+ and Ni2+ from Aqueous Solutions Using Unmodified and Carboxymethylated Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
American Journal of Physical Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 89-95
Received: Oct. 22, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 29, 2014; Published: Dec. 2, 2014
Views 2931      Downloads 246
Francis Kalu Onwu, Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B 7267, Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria
Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde, Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry/Molecular Biology, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Jude Chibuzo Igwe, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, P.M.B 2000 Uturu, Abia State Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The use of unmodified and carboxymethylated granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorption of Hg2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions was assessed in this work. The effect of concentration and modification by carboxymethyl group on the adsorption of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. Results show that Freundlich model gave the best description for the adsorption process followed by the Langmuir model. Langmuir adsorption capacity corresponding to sites saturation was found to be 20.83 mg g-1 and 19.05 mg g-1 for adsorption of the Hg2+ and Ni2+ respectively onto the unmodified adsorbent and 19.72 mg g-1 and 17.01 mg g-1 for adsorption onto the carboxymethylated substrate. The apparent energy values obtained from the Dubinin-Radushvich model further indicates that the forces of the adsorption follow physical mode. Modification by carboxymethyl group generally caused a decline in the adsorption capacity by the adsorbent. Results obtained generally showed that Hg (II) ions were better adsorbed onto both adsorbents as compared to Nickel (II).
Adsorption, Granulated Activated Carbon, Heavy Metals, Isotherm Models, Metal Ions
To cite this article
Francis Kalu Onwu, Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde, Jude Chibuzo Igwe, Adsorption of Hg2+ and Ni2+ from Aqueous Solutions Using Unmodified and Carboxymethylated Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014, pp. 89-95. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20140306.11
L. Wojanarovits, C. M. Foldvary and E. Takacs “Radiation-induced grafting of cellulose for adsorption of hazardous water pollutants: A review,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Vol. 79, no. 80, pp. 848-862, 2010.
A. F. Tajar, T. Kaghazchi and M. Soleimani, “Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on sulfurized activated carbon prepared from nut shells,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 165 no. 1-3, pp. 1159-1164, 2009.
K. Kadirvelu, C. Sivasankari, M. Jambuligam and S. Pattabhi, “Activated carbon from parthenium as adsorbent: Adsorption of Hg (II) from aqueous solution” Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, vol. 9, 499-503, 2002.
WHO, Environmental Health Criteria 101, Methyl Mercury, World Health Organisation, Geneva, pp. 68-102, 1990.
E. R. Weiner, “Applications of Environmental Chemistry: A practical guide for environmental professionals” Lewis Publishers – Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington D.C. pp. 206-235, 2000.
A. K. Meena, G. K. Mishra, P. K. Rai, C. Rajagopal and P. N. Nagar, “Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using carbon aerogel as an adsorbent,” J. Hazard Mater., vol. 122, pp. 161-170, 2005.
O. Gulnaz, S. Saygideger, E. Kusvuran, Study of Cu(II) biosorption by dried activated sludge: Effect of physicochemical environment and kinetics study. J. Hazard. Mater. B, vol. 120, pp. 193-200, 2005.
T. Y. Kim, S. K. Park, S. Y. Cho, H. B. Kim, Y. Kang, S. Kim and S. J. Kim, “Adsorption of heavy metals by Brewery Biomass,” Korean J. Chem. Eng. Vol. 22, no. 1, 91-98, 2005.
B. Volesky and Z. R. Holan, “Biosorption of heavy metals,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 235-250, 1995.
H. K. Mohammad, R. K. Ali, M. Behrouz, F. Z. Mohammad and J. Reza, “Biosorption of Uranium from aqueous solutions by nonliving biomass of marinealgae Cystoseira indica,” Electronic Journal of Biotech.vol. 9, vol. 2, pp.100-106, 2006.
E. Guibal, C. Roulph and P. Le Clirec, “Biosorption by filamentous fungus Mucor Miehei: pH effect on mechanisms and performances of uptake” Water Res. 26, 1139-1145, 1992.
S. Gang and S. Weixing, “Sunflower Stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from wastewater”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Vol. 37, pp. 1324-1328, 1998.
J. C. Igwe and A. A. Abia, “Maize cob and Husk as adsorbents for removal of Cd, Pb and Zn ions from wastewater”, The Physical Sci. Vol. 2, pp. 83-94, 2003.
J. C. Igwe andA. A Abia “Sorption Kinetics and intraparticle diffusivities of Cd, Pb and Zn ions on maize cob”, Afr. J. Biotechnol., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 509-512, 2005.
J. L. Gardea-Torresday, K. J. Tiemann, J. H. Gonzalez, I. Cano-Aguilera, J. A. Henning and M. S. Townsend, “Ability of Medicago Sativa (Alfalfa) to remove nickel from aqueous solution,” In: Proceeding of the10th Annual Conference on Hazardous Waste Research. Pp. 239-248, 1995.
I. C. Eromosele, C. O. Eromosele, J. O. Orisakiya and S. Okufi, “Binding of Chromium and copper ions from aqueous solutions by Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii) Seed Husks”, Bioresource Tech. vol. 58, pp. 25-29, 1996.
I. C. Eromosele and O. O. Otitolaye, “Binding of iron, Zinc and Lead ions from aqueous solution by Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii) Seed Husks” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicology, vol. 52, pp. 530-537, 1994.
A. A. Abia, M. Jnr. Horsfall and O. Didi, The use of Chemically modified and unmodified Cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology. vol. 90, pp. 3, 345-348, 2003.
F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah S. P. I, “Effect of Temperature on the adsorption of Cd(II), Ni (II) and Pb (II)ions from aqueous solutions by African White Star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell”. Intern. J. Bioscience, vol. 5, vol. 2, pp. 89-94, 2010.
Selvi, K; Pattabhi, S and Kadirvelu, K (2001). Removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon. Bioresource. Technol., 80:87-89.
S. Y. Quek, D. A. J. Waste and C. F. Torster, “The use of Sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper” Water SA, vol. 24, no.3, 251-256.
U. Kumar and M. Bandyopadhyay, “Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using pretreated rice husk”, Biores. Technol. vol. 97, pp. 104-109, 2006.
C. Namasivayam and K. Perasamy, “Bicarbonate-treated Peanut Hull Carbon for Mercury (II) removal from aqueous solution”, Water Res., vol. 27, pp. 1663-1668, 1993.
Wang, Z., Nie, E., Li, J., Zhao, Y., Luo, X. and Zheng, Z. (2011). Carbons prepared from spartina alterniflora and its anaerobically digested residue by H3PO4 activation: Characterization and adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 188 (1-3): 29-36.
Wu, F.C., Tseng, R.L. and Juang, R.S. (2005). Preparation of highly microporous carbons from firewood by KOH activation for adsorption of dyes and phenols from water. Separation and Purification Technology. 47 (1-2): 10-19.
A. Regheb, K. Haggag and A. El-Thalough, “Preparation and Characterization of carboxymethyl carbon” Acta Polymerica, vol. 40, pp.705-708, 1989.
Y. Jeong-Ho and C. Dae-ki, “Adsorption Equilibrium of Chlorinated Organic Solvents onto activated carbon”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 37, pp. 1422-1427, 1998.
J. C. Igwe and A. A. Abia, “Sorption Kinetics and intraparticle diffusivities of Cd, Pb and Zn ions on maize cob”, Afr. J. Biotechnol.,vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 509-512, 2005.
[30] K. Y-H. Gin, Y-Z. Tang and M. A. Aziz, “Derivation and application of a new model for heavy metal biosorption by algae”, Water Research, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1313-1323, 2002.
R. Donat, A. Akdogan, E. Erdem and H. Cetisli, “Thermodynamics of Pb2+ and Ni2+ adsorption onto natural bentonite from aqueous solutions”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 286, no.1, pp. 43-52, 2005.
P. Xiangliang, W. Jianlong and Z. Daoyong, “Biosorption of Pb (II) by Pleurotus ostreatus immobilized in calcium alginate gel”, Process Biochemistry", vol. 40 no. 8, pp. 2799-2803, 2005.
H. Hussein, S. F. Ibrahim, K. Kandeel and H. Moawad “Biosorption of heavy metals from waste water using pseudomonas Sp”, Electronic Journal of Biotech vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 38 – 46, 2004.
M. H. Khani, A. R. Keshtkar, B. Meysami, M. F. Zarea and R. Jalali, “Biosorption of Uranium from aqueous solutions by nonliving biomass of marinealgae Cystoseira indica”, Electronic Journal of Biotech. Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 100-106, 2006.
S. M. Nomanbhay and K. Palanisamy. “Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using chitosan coated oil palm shell charcoal”,Electronic Journal of Biotech. Vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 43-53, 2005.
A. C. I. Anusiem, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Adsorption Isotherm Studies of Ni(ll), Cd (ll) and Pb (ll) ions from aqueous solutions by African white star apple shell”, Intern. Jour. Chem. vol. 20, no. 4, PP. 265-274, 2010.
M. Bansal, D. Singh, V. K. Garg and R. Pawan, Use of Agricultural Waste for the removal of Nickel ions from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies, International Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, pp.108-115. 2009.
K. K. H. Choy, G. McKay and J. F. Portar, “Sorption of acidic dyes from effluents using activated carbon”, Resour. Conserv. Recycling. vol. 27, pp. 57-71, 1999.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186