Study on the Structure Model of Water Molecule and the Reasons of Formation of Some Characteristics of Liquid & Solid Water
American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 9, Issue 2, March 2020, Pages: 11-27
Received: Apr. 14, 2020; Accepted: May 22, 2020; Published: Jun. 17, 2020
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Peimin Pu, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; Cloud Water Engineering Inc. (CWEI), Nanjing, China
Jiangping Pu, Cloud Water Engineering Inc. (CWEI), Nanjing, China
Zhengbin Zhu, Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
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A model for water (H2O) molecule, the structure of ice, snow and liquid water were presented, and the reasons of formation of their specific characteristics were modeled in good coincidence with observed data. (1) A stable quasi rigid molecule structure may be constructed by dominant trajectories of electrons round and between the H-O-H nucleus according with the laws of Columb’s force and Kepler’s movement rule. The core of the water molecule is a isosceles triangle with ratio of distances between nucleus: (H-H)2/(H-O)2=2.5, which would be surrounded by moving electrons and form an equilateral triangular pyramid (ETP Model) with 2 pairs of “+/-” electricity endpoints and edge length of 0.48017nm. (2) The “+/-” endpoint of a water molecule may attract other “-/+” endpoint in distance of less than 0.27 nm. A molecule may joints other molecule to have all their 4 planes parallel each other and the 6 molecules may joint as a hexagon loop with a common plane and then these loops may similarly be formed for each plane of the pyramid and extend to whole space and form the water ice structure with Zigzag Hexagon Tunnel-Vacancy System (ZHTVS Model) with porosity of ≥2.28. (3) A “sheet model” of desublimation like the snowflake is more possible phenomenon below 0°C in air, possessing the self-similarity with the hexagon-sexangle-six needle forms. (4) The liquid water has the same structure of the solid ice, but because there is 1/11 possibility to have an appearance of double electrons at one endpoint of the pyramid with “-” charge, so when the temperature is above 0°C, a part of water molecules on the frame may possess the energy for separating from the frame, and will move into the tunnel/vacancy, being as a “free water molecule”. The total volume of the liquid water would decrease until to 4°C to the minimum. The ratio of density of solid water ice and liquid water is 11/12=0.916667. (5) The relationships of the specific characteristics of the water with its construction, such as density, expansibility, compressibility, specific heat capacity, electric and thermal conductivity, solubility for O2, H2S, NaCl, KCl, etc. were discussed and numerical modeled. The experiments of saturated solution of NaCl audio-visual indicated that there are tunnel/vacancy spaces for storing NaCl molecules/ions, and increasing the volume of 1/11 of water volume after freezing. (6) The surface structure of liquid water and the applications of research results are presented in other papers.
Model of Water Molecule Structure, Ice and liquid Water Structure, Snowflake Forms and Self-similarity, Water Structure and Its Properties, Porosity Ratio of Water, Water as Solvent, Salts Dissolving Process in Water
To cite this article
Peimin Pu, Jiangping Pu, Zhengbin Zhu, Study on the Structure Model of Water Molecule and the Reasons of Formation of Some Characteristics of Liquid & Solid Water, American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2020, pp. 11-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200902.11
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