Limit of Low Temperatures, Freeze Decay, Dissipation of Matter, Harvest of Cold Energy
American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 217-220
Received: Jul. 6, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 21, 2015;
Published: Jul. 30, 2015
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Jitendra Kumar Barthakur, Department of Statistics, Nutech Mediworld, Green Park Extension, New Delhi, India
Background: The gas laws assert that at “absolute zero” or 0 K, the gaseousness of the gases ends. Experimentally, gases become liquid or solid at 0 K. However, (i) 0 K is not the lowest limit of temperature; and (ii) at 0 K, the value of entropy is not zero. Activity continues at 0 K. There is (a) “Zero-point” energy; (b) the principle of “indeterminacy” holds; (c) 0 K is not the lower limit of “critical points” of the fluids and solids phases; (d) the structures of atoms comport in “clusters”; (e) electronic energy “mismatch” in superconductivity; and other phenomena stand against zero entropy at 0K. Purpose: Dissipation of matter means dissipation of energy. It may be possible to harvest the dissipating energy at below 0 K temperature for the use of human beings. Method: A number of statistical equations anchor at zero entropy at 0K. This anchor is arbitrary. At 0 K, gas stays as liquid, solid or plasma. Argumentatively, much below that temperature there is liquid–limit–temperature (LLT) where all liquids become solids or plasma. Below LLT, there is solid–limit-temperature (SLT) where freeze decay of matter sets in. At SLT, the articles and sub-particles constituting an atom dance away in to space. Result: Matter exists in the range between very cold temperature and very hot temperature. When matter dissipates then energy disperses with the dissipating matter. Conclusion: Laboratories need to reach the SLT temperature empirically and find means to harvest the dissipating energy.
Jitendra Kumar Barthakur,
Limit of Low Temperatures, Freeze Decay, Dissipation of Matter, Harvest of Cold Energy, American Journal of Modern Physics.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2015, pp. 217-220.
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