Evaluating the Spatial and Environmental Benefits of Green Space: An International and Local Comparison on Rural Areas
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 4-1, August 2015, Pages: 45-51
Received: Apr. 2, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 17, 2015;
Published: May 27, 2015
Views 4204 Downloads 126
Luan Cilliers, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa
Many issues exist from isolated planning of urbanized areas and environmental areas. Current approaches focussing on the integration of Urban Planning and Urban Ecology seek to address such issues. Urban Ecology practice aims to describe the study of the joined relationships between humans and nature. Urban Ecology thus forms a major part of Urban and Spatial Planning, with regard to the objectives of sustainable planning and development, green infrastructure planning, and resilience. Green spaces support sustainable human settlements by means of the different benefits which nature provides, referred to in this research as ecosystem services. Green spaces, in this sense, are fundamental areas in human settlements, in need of intentional and structured planning approaches to enhance sustainability and said environmental benefits. Rural settlements in South Africa experience various problems and challenges in terms of planning for the environment through green spaces (as well as sustainability), mainly as a result of the fragmentation of these rural areas, the existence of lost spaces, urbanisation, urban sprawl and poverty. This research attempted to address the challenges of integrated planning and green space provision in a local rural context; evaluated the spatial and environmental benefits of green space; and enhanced the importance of planning for such benefits in rural South African areas. A local and international comparative study was conducted in order to evaluate the green space planning of South African rural areas in terms of international approaches. The comparative study also served as guidance for new green space planning approaches and recommendations in South African rural context.
Evaluating the Spatial and Environmental Benefits of Green Space: An International and Local Comparison on Rural Areas, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Planning for Sustainable Communities: Green-Spaces in Rural Areas.
Vol. 4, No. 4-1,
2015, pp. 45-51.
M.M. McConnachie and C.M. Shackleton, “Public green space inequality in small towns in South Africa,” Grahamstown: Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, 2012.
J.M. Marzluff, E, Shulenberger and E. Endlicher., “Urban ecology: an international perspective on the interaction between humans and nature,” New York: Springer, 2008.
A. Schäffler and M. Swilling, “Valuing green infrastructure in an urban environment under pressure: the Johannesburg case,” Ecological Economics, vol. 86, pp. 246 – 257, 2013.
TEEB, “The economics of ecosystems & biodiversity: ecosystem services in urban management,” USA, 2011, http://www.teebweb.org/Portals/25/Documents/TEEB_Manual_for_Cities_Ecosystem_Services_for _Urban_Management_FINAL_2011.pdf. (Accessed 1 February 2014).
A. Nelson, “Stockholm, Sweden: city of water,” Sweden, 2006, http://depts.washington.edu/open2100/Resources/1_OpenSpaceSystems/Open_Space_Systems/Stockholm_Case_Study.pdf, (Accessed 12 June 2014).
S.P.R. Labuschagne, J. Van Loggerenberg and J.H. Lombard, “The Role of GIS to Identify Nodes and Guide Sustainable Development in Rural Areas,” Potchefstroom: NWU. (Mini-dissertation – Hons), 2013.
J. Byrne and N. Sipe, “Green and open space planning for urban consolidation – A review of the literature and best practice,” Brisbane: Griffith University, 2010.
Commission for Architecture & the Built Environment, “Start with the park: creating sustainable urban green spaces in areas of housing growth and renewal,” London: Cabe Space, 2011.
U.G. Sandström, on green infrastructure planning in urban Sweden, Planning Practice & Research, vol. 17(4), pp. 373-385, 2002.
J. Ahern, “From fail-safe to safe-to-fail: Sustainability and resilience in the new urban world,” Landscape and Urban Planning, pp. 341-343, 2011.
R. Trancik, “Finding lost space: Theories of urban design,” Boston: John Wiley & sons, 1986.
J. Barnett, “The fractured metropolis: Improving the new city, restoring the old city, reshaping the region,” New York: Harper Collins, 1995.
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, “South Africa environment outlook: A report on the state of the environment,” Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2006.
J.B. McMahan, K.T. Weber and J.D. Sauder, “Using remotely sensed data in urban sprawl and green space analysis,” Intermountain Journal of Science, vol. 1(8), pp. 30 - 37.