Green spaces are often perceived as a luxury, especially in rural areas in need of basic services and characterized by housing needs. Recent studies proof the necessity of providing green spaces, captured in terms of the social, environmental, health and economic benefits that such spaces offer to (urban and rural) communities, along with the core linkage to sustainability and enhanced quality of life. Acknowledging the constrains of providing green spaces including issues such as limited municipal budgets, conflicting development priorities, and increasing urbanization placing pressure on space for development, this paper explores the importance of planning for green spaces in terms of the direct and indirect benefits it offers to communities and to the sustainable development approach.
Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers,
The Importance of Planning for Green Spaces, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Planning for Sustainable Communities: Green-Spaces in Rural Areas.
Vol. 4, No. 4-1,
2015, pp. 1-5.
E.J. Cilliers and W. Timmermans, “The importance of creative participatory planning in the public place-making process,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol 41. (EPB 139-098), 2014.
B. Thaiutsa, L. Puangchit, R. Kjelgren and W. Arunpraparut, “Urban green space, street tree and heritage large tree assessment in Bangkok, Thailand,” Forestry and Urban Greening, vol. 7(3), pp. 219-229, 2008.
M.M. McConnachie and C.M. Shackleton, “Public green space inequality in small towns in South Africa,” Habitat International, vol. 34(2), pp. 244–248, 2010.
C.M. Sutton, on urban open space: a case study of Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa. Canada: Queens University. (Thesis – B.Sc). School of Environmental Studies. 139 p, 2006.
K.L. Wolf, on public value of nature: economics of Urban trees, parks and open space, Design with Spirit, Washington: Edmond, uEnvironmental Design Research Association, 2004.
V. McConnell and K. Wiley, “Infill Development: Perspectives and Evidence from Economics and Planning,” Resources for the Future RRF, pp. 1-37, 2010.
SCANPH, Southern California Association of Non-Profit Housing, Density Guide For Affordable Housing Developers, 2003.
Rics, on the Value of Sustainability: Meeting of the Minds, Asset Strategies, 2004.
A. Bertaud, The study of urban spatial structures, 2010, http://alain-bertaud.com. (Accessed 4 July 2010).
J. Luttik, “The value of trees, water and open space as reflected by house prices in the Netherlands,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 48, pp. 161-167, 2000.
A.T. More, T. Stevens, and P.G. Allen, “Valuation of urban parks,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 15, pp. 139-152, 1988.
R. Stiles, “Urban spaces – enhancing the attractiveness and quality of the urban environment,” WP3 Joint Strategy. University of Technology, Vienna, December 2006.
A.E. Kazmierczak and P. James, on the role of urban green spaces in improving social inclusion, Salford: University of Salford, School of Environment and Life Sciences, 2008.
F.E. Kuo, “The role of arboriculture in a healthy social ecology,” Journal of Arboriculture, vol. 29(3), pp. 148-155, 2003.
E.J. Cilliers, E. Diemont, D.J. Stobbelaar and W. Timmermans, “Sustainable Green Urban Planning: The Green Credit Tool,” Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 3(1), pp. 57-66, 2010.
A, Van den Berg, T. Hartig, and H. Staats, “Preference for Nature in Urbanized Societies: Stress, Restoration, and the Pursuit of Sustainability,” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 63(1), pp. 79-96, 2007.
S.U. Roger, on health benefits of gardens in hospitals: Plants for People, Texas: Centre for health systems and design, 2003.
Greenspace Scotland, “Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review,” Scotland, 2008, Http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/greenspace_and_quality_of_life_literature_review_aug2008.pdf Date of Access: 2 April 2014.
N. Owen, N. Humpel, E. Leslie, A. Bauman, and J.F. Sallis, “Understanding environmental influences on walking: Review and research agenda,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 27, pp. 67-76, 2004.
D.A. Cohen, J.S. Ashwood, M.M. Scott, A. Overton, K.R. Evenson, L.K. Staten, D.Porter, T.L. Mckenzie, and D. Catellier, “Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, pp. E1381-E1389, 2006
R. Hansmann, S.M. Hug and K. Seeland, K, “Restoration and stress relief through physical activities in forests and parks,” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 6, pp. 213-225, 2007.
A. Chiesura, “The role of urban parks for the sustainable city,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 68, pp. 129-138, 2004.
F.E. Kuo and W.C. Sullivan, “Aggression and violence in the inner city - Effects of environment via mental fatigue,” Environment and Behavior, vol. 33, pp. 543-571, 2001.
A.F. Taylor, F.E. Kuo and W.C. Sullivan, “Views of nature and self-discipline: Evidence from inner city children,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 22, pp. 49-63, 2002.
E.J. Cilliers, E. Diemont, D.J. Stobbelaar and W. Timmermans, “Sustainable Green Urban Planning: The Workbench Spatial Quality Method,” Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4(2), pp. 214-224, 2012.
S.S. Cilliers, E.J. Cilliers, C.E. Lubbe, S.J. Siebert, “Ecosystem services of urban green spaces in African countries—perspectives and challenges,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 16(4), pp. 681-702, 2013.
E.G. McPherson, S.E. Maco, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, Q. Xiao, A.M. Van Der Zanden and N. Bell, on Western Washington and Oregon community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning. Silverton: International Society of Arboriculture, 2002.
P. Bolund and S. Hunhammar, "Ecosystem services in urban areas," Ecological Economics, vol. 29(2), pp.293-301, 1999.
H. Akbari, M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha, “Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas," Solar Energy, vol. 70(3), pp. 295-310, 2001.
E. Alexandri and P. Jones, "Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates," Building and Environment, vol. 43(4), pp. 480-493, 2008.
S. Hodgkison and JM. Hero, "The efficacy of small-scale conservation efforts, as assessed on Australian golf courses." Biological Conservation, vol. 135(4), pp. 576-586, 2007.
H. Woolley, C. Swanwick and N. Dunnet, on nature, role and value of green space in towns and cities: an overview. 2003. www.atypom-link.com/ALEX/doi/abs/10.2148/benv.18.104.22.168467.
Cabe Space, “Paying for parks: Eight models for funding urban green space,” London, 2005. www.cabe.org.uk/files/Paying-for-parks-full-report.pdf. (Accessed 20 April 2009).
M. Lutzenhisher and N.A. Netusil, “Effect of Open Spaces on a Home’s Sale Price,” Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 19, pp. 291-298, 2001.
S.D. Shultz and D.A King, “The Use of Census Data for Hedonic Price Estimates of OpenSpace Amenities and Land Use,” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, vol. 22, pp. 239-252, 2001.
V.K. Smith, C. Poulos and H. Kim, “Treating open space as an urban amenity,” Resource and Energy Economics, vol. 24, pp. 107–129, 2002.
C. Jim, Y. Wendy and Y. Chen, “Impacts of urban environmental elements on residential housing prices in Guangzhou (China),” Journal of landscape and urban planning, vol. 78, pp. 422–434, 2006.
B. Bolitzer and N.R. Netusil, “The impact of open spaces on property values in Portland, Oregon,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 59(3), pp. 185-193, 2000.
S.T. Anderson and S.E. West, “Open space, residential property values and spatial context,” Journal of Regional Science and urban economics, vol. 36(6), pp. 773-789, November 2006.
Commissie van Ek, “Amersfoort creatieve stad”, 2009. http://www.amersfoortcreatievestad.nl/site/tags/tag/commissie+van+ek/.
A. Herzele and T. Wiedemann, “A monitoring tool for the provision of accessible and attractive urban green spaces,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 63(2), pp.109-126, 2002.
D.M. Brasington and D. Hite, “Demand for environmental quality: A spatial hedonic analysis,” Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol. 35(1), pp. 57-82, 2005.
Lambert, on economic valuation of wetlands: an important component of wetland management strategies at the river Basin scale, Ramsar Convention, 2003.
Gopaul, M. 2006. The significance of rural areas in South Africa for tourism development through community participation with special reference to Umgababa, a rural area located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Pretoria: University of South Africa. (Dissertation – Master of Arts).
Campbell, C., Nair, Y., Maimane, S. & Sibiya, Z. 2008. Supporting people with AIDS and their carers in rural South Africa: Possibilities and challenges. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/5471/ Date of access: 28 Feb. 2013.
Van der Ploeg, H. Renting, G. Brunori, K. Knickel, J. Mannion, T. Marsden, K. de Roest, E. Sevilla-Guzman, E. and F. Ventura, “Rural Development: From Practices and Policies towards Theory,” Sociologis Ruralis, vol. 40(4), pp. 391-408., 2000.
R. Veenhoven and J. Ehrhardt, “The cross-national pattern of happiness: Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness,” Social Indicators Research, vol. 34, pp. 33-68, 1995
 K. Krizek and J. Powers, on a planners’ guide to sustainable development. PAS 467, Chicago: American Planning Association, 1996.
A. Power, “Sustainable communities and sustainable development a review of sustainable communities”, 2004, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28313/1/CASEreport23.pdf. Date of access 25 March 2013.
O.H. Caspersen, C.C. Konijnendijk and A.S. Olafsson, “Green space planning and land use: An assessment of urban regional and green structure planning in Greater Copenhagen,” Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography, vol. 106(2), pp. 7-20, 2006.
E. Defrancesco, P. Rosato and L. Rossetto, on the appraisal approach to valuing environmental resources, Valuing complex natural resource systems: The case of the Lagoon of Venice, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp 40-57, 2006.