Effects of Fertilization and Harvesting Age on Yield and Quality of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Under Irrigation, in Dehana District, Wag Hemra Zone, Ethiopia
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages: 113-121
Received: Jun. 5, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 19, 2020; Published: Jul. 28, 2020
Views 18      Downloads 18
Authors
Awoke Kefyalew, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Oda Bultum University, Chiro, Ethiopia
Berhanu Alemu, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
Alemu Tsegaye, Sekota Dry Land Agricultural Research Center, Sekota, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to evaluating the effects of fertilizer and harvesting age on agronomic performance, chemical composition and economic feasibility of Desho (Pennisetum Pedicellatum) grass under irrigation, in Ethiopia. A factorial arrangement with four fertilizer types (control, urea, compost and urea + compost), and three harvesting ages (90, 120 and 150) with three replications were used. Data on morphological characteristics of the grass were recorded. Based on the data collected, harvesting age was significantly affected the agronomic parameters of the grass. Plant height (PH), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), number of leaves per plant (NLPP), number of leaves per tiller (NLPT), dry matter yield (DMY), leaf length (LL) and leaf area (LA) were increased with increasing harvesting age, while leaf to stem ratio (LSR) showed a decreasing trend. NDF, ADF and ADL content were also increased with increasing age, while ash declined with age. Fertilizer was also significantly affected the agronomic parameter of Desho grass. A mixture of 50 kg urea (U)/ha and 6,000 kg compost/ha was provided the highest NTPP, NLPP, NLPT, and DMY, while NF (control) was the lowest in all parameters. Highest NDF, ADF, ADL and ash content were recorded at the control group. In general, using a mixture of 50 kg urea (U)/ha and 6,000 kg compost/ha fertilizer is the most important for long-term Desho grass production which provides a high benefit-cost ratio. Further research is needed in different organic and inorganic fertilizer combinations.
Keywords
Compost, Crude Protein, Dry Matter Yield, Harvesting Age, Urea
To cite this article
Awoke Kefyalew, Berhanu Alemu, Alemu Tsegaye, Effects of Fertilization and Harvesting Age on Yield and Quality of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Under Irrigation, in Dehana District, Wag Hemra Zone, Ethiopia, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2020, pp. 113-121. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20200904.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2018. Agricultural sample survey. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings). Statistical bulletin 587.
[2]
Sintayehu, G., Samuel, A., Derek, B and Ayele, S. 2010. Diagnostic study of live cattle and beef production and marketing. Constraints and opportunities for enhancing the system. The report commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation at the request of the Government of Ethiopia.
[3]
ATA (Agricultural Transformation Agency). 2012. Livestock value chain programs. Retrieved from Http./www.ata.gov.et/programs/value chain programs/livestock/.
[4]
Tilahun, A., Solomon, M and Roothaert, R. 2005. Intensification of livestock feed production in Ethiopian highlands: Potential and experiences of the African Highlands Initiative. Presented at the 19th EVA Annual Conference, 8 June 2005. EVA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10568/ 76954.
[5]
Alemayehu Mengistu. 2006. Pasture and Forage Resource profiles of Ethiopia. Ethiopia/FAO. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp 36.
[6]
Shapiro, I., Gebru, G., Desta, S., Negassa, A., Nigussie, K., Aboset, G and Mechal, H. 2015. Ethiopia livestock master plan. ILRI Project Report. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya.
[7]
Bimrew, A. 2016. Evaluation of the agronomic, utilization, nutritive and feeding value of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum). PhD Dissertation. Jimma University, Ethiopia.
[8]
Welle, S., Chantawarangul, K., Nontananandh, S and Jantawat, S. 2006. Effectiveness of grass strips as barriers against runoff and soil loss in Jijiga area, northern part of Somalia region, Ethiopia. Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science. Volume 40. pp 549-558.
[9]
Smith, G. 2010. Ethiopia: local solutions to a global problem. Retrieved from http://www.new-ag.info/en/focus/focusItem.php?a=1784.
[10]
Danano, D. 2007. Improved grazing land management- Ethiopia. In H. Liniger, & W. Critchley (Eds,), Where the land is greener (pp. 313-316). Bern, Switzerland: WOCAT.
[11]
IPMS Ethiopia. 2010. Improved productivity & market success of Ethiopian farmers. Retrieved from http://www.ipms ethiopia.org/content/files/Documents/workshops-Meetings/Agri-business_Development_Process/Report%20on%20IPMS-CIAT%20Agri-business%20Development%20Process.pdf. pp 1-27.
[12]
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. Tropicales. Volume 5: pp 77–84. DOI: 10.17138/TGFT (5) 77-84.
[13]
Bimrew, A., Solomon, D., Taye, T., Firew, T., Jane, W and Barbara, R. 2016. Determinants of the utilization of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) by farmers in Ethiopia. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales. Volume 4, Article #2. pp 112–121.
[14]
Ecocrop. 2010. Ecocrop database. FAO.
[15]
Trivedi, B. K. 2002. Grasses and Legumes for Tropical Pastures. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 003, India.
[16]
Skerman, P. J and Riveros, F. 1990. Tropical grasses. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 23, FAO, Rome. http://books.google.com/books?id=tCydcW6MK60C
[17]
Bereket, D., Worku, B., Tewodros, T and Tesfaye, A. 2016. Best fit practice manual for Desho grass (pennisetum pedicellatum) production and management in SNNPRS, Ethiopia.
[18]
AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemists). 1990. Official methods of analysis 15th ed. AOAC Inc. Arlington, Virginia, USA. pp 1298.
[19]
Van Soest, P. J., Roberston, J. B and Lews, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. Volume 74. pp 3583-3597.
[20]
SAS (9.2 version). 2007. SAS Users’ guide, Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute, Inc, Cary, NC.
[21]
Berihun, M. 2005. Effect of planting patterns and harvesting Days on yield and quality of bana grass [pennisetum purpureum (l.) X pennisetum americanum (l.)]. M. sc. Thesis. Alamaya university, Ethiopia.
[22]
Wangchuk, K., Rai, K., Nirola, H., Thukten., Dendup, C and Mongar, D. 2015. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills. Tropical Grasslands – Forrajes Tropicales. Volume 3. pp 142−150.
[23]
Bimrew, A., Solomon, D., Taye, T., Firew, T., Aynalem, H and Jane, W. 2017. Effects of altitude and harvesting dates on morphological characteristics, yield and nutritive value of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin.) in Ethiopia. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Volume 51. pp 148-153.
[24]
Priyadarshani, N. D. A., Amarasinghe, M. K. T. K., Subasinghe, S., Palihakkara, I. R and Kumarasinghe, H. K. M. S. 2013. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on biomass production, oil yield and quality of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.). The Journal of Agricultural Sciences. volume 8, Number #1.
[25]
Ahmad, A. H., Wahid. A., Khalid. F., Fiaz. N., Zamir. M. S. I. 2011. Impact of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on Growth, yield and quality of forage oat (avena sativa l.). Volume 44, Article #3. pp 147. DOI: 10.2478/v10298-012-0040-7.
[26]
Aslam, M., Iqbal. A., Ibni Zamir. M. S., Mubeen. M and Amin M. 2011. Effect of different nitrogen levels and seed rates on yield and quality of maize fodder. Crop Environ. Volume 2. pp 47-51.
[27]
Freitas, P. P., da Fonseca, D. M., Braz, T. G. S., Martuscello Manoe, J. A and Santos, E. R. 2012. Forage yield and nutritive value of Tanzania grass under nitrogen supplies and plant densities. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. Volume 41, Article #4. pp 864-872.
[28]
Hammam, K. H., Monem, A. B. D. E. L and Hassan, E. A. 2014. Effect of organic and bio-fertilizers on vetiver plant vetiveria zizanioides, L, Nash. Egypt Journal of Agricultural Research. Volume 92, Article #2.
[29]
Ansah, T., Osafo, E. L. K and Hansen H. 2010. Herbage yield and chemical composition of four varieties of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass harvested at three different days after planting. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 1 (5): 923-929. DOI: 10.5251/abjna.2010.1.5.923.929.
[30]
Genet, T., Bimrew, A and Yeshambel, M. 2017. Effects of Harvesting Age and Spacing on Plant Characteristics, Chemical Composition and Yield of Desho Grass (Pennisetum Pedicellatum Trin.) in the Highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes.
[31]
Jagadeesh, C. H., Ramana Reddy, Y., Nagalakshmi, D., Mahender, M., Nalini Kumari, N., Sridhar, K and Suneetha Devi, K. B. 2017. Effect of stage of harvest on the yield, chemical composition, in vitro and in sacco digestibility of hybrid napier (Penniserum purpureum) variety APB N1. Indian Journal of Animal Research. Volume 51, Article #1. pp 116-120.
[32]
Taye, B., Solomon, M and Prasad, N. K. 2007. Effects of cutting dates on nutritive value of Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass planted sole and in association with Desmodium (Desmodium intortum) or Lablab (Lablab purpureus). Livestock Research for Rural Development. 19 (1). www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/1/bayb19011.htm.
[33]
Ullah, M. A., Anwar, M and Rana, A. S. 2010. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and harvesting intervals on the yield and forage quality of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) under mesic climate of pothowar plateau. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 47 (3), 231-234.
[34]
Kering, K. M., Guretzky, J., Funderburg, E and Mosali, E. 2011. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Harvest Season on Forage Yield, Quality, and Macronutrient Concentrations in Midland Bermuda grass. Agronomy and Horticulture Faculty Publications. 555.
[35]
Braz, T. G. S., Fonseca, D. M., Freitas, F. P. 2011. Morphogenesis of Tanzania guinea grass under nitrogen doses and plant densities. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 40 (7), 1420-1427.
[36]
Hazary, H., Bilkis, T., Khandaker, H., Akbar, A and Khaleduzzaman, M. 2015. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Yield and Nutritional Quality of Jumbo Grass (Sorghum Grass × Sudan Grass). Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 3 (8): 444-450. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2015/3.8.444.450.
[37]
Abdi, H. 2014. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on agronomic traits, biomass yield and nutritive value of cenchrus ciliaris and panicum maximum grown under irrigation at Gode, Somali region. M. sc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
[38]
Tessema, Z., Baars, R. M. T and Alemu. 2002. Effect of plant height at cutting, source and level of fertilizer on yield and nutritional quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.). African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 19, 123–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/10220110209485783.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186