Farmers’ Goals and Efficiency in Small-Scale Maize Production: The Case of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 191-201
Received: Aug. 11, 2016; Accepted: Aug. 22, 2016; Published: Sep. 10, 2016
Views 3141      Downloads 111
Authors
Douglas Kibirige, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland
Ajuruchukwu Obi, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Alice-Eastern Cape, South Africa
Micah Bheki. Masuku, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland
Ajay Shankar Singh, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Farmers’ goals in complementarity with natural, physical and financial assets are crucial for efficient production and productivity especially for rural development and economic growth. Goals can be defined as aspirations for which a person has decided to undertake for improved well-being. This article examined correlates of farmers’ production efficiency, and their goals and other farmer/farm characteristics. The study was carried out at Qamata and Tyefu irrigation scheme in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, respectively. The study involved about 108 of farmers who were interviewed as source of primary data. This article assumes that farmers’ goals have a greater impact on their production efficiency. The principal component analysis was employed to establish generalized perceived farmers’ goals. Established principal component coefficients were regressed with generated production efficiency scores. A stochastic production frontier analysis was employed to generate the efficiency scores. Generated perceived principal component of farmers’ goals included self-expression (Farm status), business (profit) related goals, social (internal and external network and rules) related goals and independence goals (self-reliance). On average, smallholder farmers were technically inefficient in maize production with a score of about 44%. Farm and farmers’ characteristics found to be significantly related to technical efficiency included household size (at 5% level of significance), years spent in school (at 5% level of significance), access to training on agronomy (at 5% level), crop incomes (at 5% level), and government social grants (at 1% level of significance). The perceived farmers’ goal found to have a positive and significant impact on technical efficiency was farm status at 10% level, while farmers’ goal related to business (profit maximization) had a negative relationship with technical efficiency at 5% level of significance. This study recommends that all stakeholders in smallholder agricultural sector should participate in planning and implementing policies that match farmers’ goals and aspiration, and farmers’ improved formal education and access to farm loans, without changing the existing technology.
Keywords
Farmers’ Goals, farmers, Technical Efficiency, Factor Analysis, Maize Output
To cite this article
Douglas Kibirige, Ajuruchukwu Obi, Micah Bheki. Masuku, Ajay Shankar Singh, Farmers’ Goals and Efficiency in Small-Scale Maize Production: The Case of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 191-201. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20160505.18
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Amos, T. T. 2007, An Analysis of Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, 340001, Nigeria: Kamla Raj 2007: J. Soc. Sci., 15 (2): 127-133 (2007).
[2]
Appadurai, A. 2002, The capacity to aspire, in V. Rao and M. Walton (eds), Culture and public action, Washington DC, The World Bank.
[3]
Asiimwe, K. J. 2009, Technical efficiency of Upland Rice producers in South Western Uganda: Msc thesis: Makerere University Kampala, Uganda.
[4]
Battese, G. E and T. J Coelli, 1995, A model for technical inefficiency effect in Stochastic Frontier Production for panal data‖, Emperical Economics Vol 20 pp 325-345.
[5]
Battese, G. E, 1992, Frontier production functions and technical efficiency: A survey of empirical applications in agricultural economics, Agricultural Economics 7 Pp. 185-208.
[6]
Baumol, William J. 1965, Economic Theory and Operations Analysis, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[7]
Bravo-Ureta, B. E. and A. E Pinheiro, 1997, Technical, Economic, and Allocative Efficiency in Peasant Farming: Evidence from the Dominican Republic, The Developing Economies, XXXV (1): 48–67.
[8]
Bravo-Ureta, B. E., and L Rieger 1990, Alternative Production Frontier Methodologies and Dairy Farm Efficiency, Journal of Agricultural Economics 41 (2): 215–26.
[9]
Eagly A. H., and S. Chaiken, 1993, The psychology of attitudes. P 186. HBJ, New York.
[10]
Fairweather J. R., and N. C., Keating, 1994, Goals and management styles of New Zealand farmers, Agricultural Systems Vol. 44, pp 181-200.
[11]
FAO-UN, 2011, Country STAT for sub-saharan africa: Ethiopia, Panorama Report I, PROJECT GCP/GLO/208/BMG, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Addis Ababa, May 2011.
[12]
Gasson R., 1973, Goals and values of farmers, Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 24 (3), pp 521-542.
[13]
Haji J., 2007, Production Efficiency of Smallholders' Vegetable-dominated Mixed Farming System in Eastern Ethiopia, A Non-Parametric Approach”, Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; Journal of African Economies 2007, 16 (1): 1-27; doi: 10.1093/jae/ejl044.
[14]
Harwood R. R., 1979. Small Farm Development Understanding and Improving Farming Systems in the Humid Tropics. LADS Development-Oriented Literature Series.
[15]
Heimeshoff M., J. Schreyögg and L. Kwietniewski, 2013, Cost and technical efficiency of physician practices: A stochastic frontier approach using panel data. Health Care Manag Sci (2014) 17: 150–161: DOI 10.1007/s10729-013-9260-0: Published online: 12 December 2013: Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.
[16]
Kisaka-Lwayo M., and A. Obi, 2012, Risk Perception and Management Strategies by Small Holder Farmers in Kwazulu-Natal Provice, South Africa, International Management Association and institute of Agricultural Management, ISSN 2047-3710, International Journal of Agricultural Management, Volume 1 Issue 3.
[17]
Lichtenstein, Sarah, and Paul Slovic, 1973, Response-Induced Reversals of Preferences in Gambling: An Extended Replication in Las Vegas, J. Experimental Psych. 101 (1973): 16-20.
[18]
Maskey R., D. Lawler. and T. Batey, 2010, Goal attainment scaling: an evaluation tool to assess changes in farmers’ decision making, Paper presented to the Australasian Evaluation Society International Conference held on the 1-3 September 2010, Wellington, New Zealand.
[19]
Machethe, C. L., K. Mollel, K. Ayisi, M. B. Mashatola, F. D. K. Anim and F. Vanaxhe, 2004. Smallholder irrigation and agricultural development in the Olifants River 279 Basin of Limpopo Province: Management transfer, productivity, profitability and food security issues, WRC Report No 1050/1/04. Pretoria: Water Research Commission.
[20]
McDonald J. 2009, Using Least Squares and Tobit in Second Stage DEA Efficiency Analyses: Flinders Business School, Flinders University, Australia. European Journal of Operational Research 2009 197 2 792-798.
[21]
Obi A. 2012, Governance structure for supply chain management in the smallholder farming systems of South Africa, InA. Obi, H. D. Van Schalkwyk, J. A. Groenewald, G. C. G. Fraser, and Aad Van Tilburg (eds), Unlocking markets to smallholders: Lesson from South Africa. Mansholt publication series-volume 10: Wageningen Academic Publishers; Netherlands.
[22]
Ojo S. O., 2003, Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Nigeria, Asian Network for Scientific Information, International Journal of poultry Science, 2 (6): 459-464, 2003.
[23]
Padilla-Fernandez M. D. and P. Nuthall, 2001, Farmers’ goals and efficiency in the production of sugar cane: The Philippine case, Farm and Horticultural Management Group Lincoln University, ISSN 1174-8796, Research Report 07/2001.
[24]
Phillips M. A, 2012, Inefficiency in Japanese Water Utility Firms: A Stochastic Frontier Approach: JEL Codes: L51, L95; Missouri University of Science and Technology; Economics Department, USA.
[25]
Rahman, S., 2003, Profit efficiency among Bangladeshi rice farmers, Food Policy 28: 487-503.
[26]
Van Kooten G. C., A. R Schoney, and K. A. Hayward, 1986, An Alternative Approach to the Evaluation of Goal Hierarchies among Farmers, Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 11 (1): 40-49 1986 Western Agricultural Economics Association.
[27]
Vimalra G., R. Singh, and K. Vijayaragavan, 2012, Correlates of Successful Agripreneurship: A Study of Awardee Farmers of Tamil Nadu”. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 25 (2): (283-286) 2012.
[28]
Wang Hung-Jen and P. Schmidt, 2002, One-Step and Two-Step Estimation of the Effects of Exogenous Variables on Technical Efficiency Levels: Journal of Productivity Analysis, 18, 129–144, 2002: JEL classification: C51, C52, D24: @ 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.
[29]
Water in Dry-land Collaborative Research Program (WIDCORP), 2008, Identifyingfarmer typologies, attitudes and aspirations of the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline – Supply System 6. A report prepared for the Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, December 2008, Report no. 3/08.
[30]
World Food Program, 2005, Emergency Food Security Assessment Handbook, 1st ed., Methodological guidance for better assessments, June 2005 -World Food Programme (WFP), ODAN Emergency Needs Assessment Branch.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186