The Indonesian cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in the past twenty five years with massive growth, driven by rapid expansion of smallholder farmer participation. Cocoa production provides the main source of income of millions smallholder farmers and their families in Indonesia. Smallholders contribute more than ninety percent of national production; the remainder comes from state-owned plantations and private estates. In parts of Indonesia, cocoa is responsible for the opening up of primary forests and the establishment of settlements in these previously forested areas. Cocoa intensification system, which increases the fragmentation of primary forests and is considered agriculturally unsustainable, is becoming common in Indonesia. This paper presents the synthesis that resulted from this review as well as the researcher’s critical appraisal of the state of the research field of intensification system and its effect under climate change which the objective remaining stakeholder relevant to the sustainable intensification of farming practices of the poor smallholder farmers in Indonesia.
Cocoa Farming System in Indonesia and Its Sustainability Under Climate Change, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
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2016, pp. 170-180.
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