Cocoa Farming System in Indonesia and Its Sustainability Under Climate Change
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 170-180
Received: Jul. 12, 2016; Accepted: Jul. 28, 2016; Published: Sep. 7, 2016
Views 4971      Downloads 191
Julian Witjaksono, The Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, the Indonesia’s Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
Asmin, The Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology, the Indonesia’s Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The Indonesian cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in the past twenty five years with massive growth, driven by rapid expansion of smallholder farmer participation. Cocoa production provides the main source of income of millions smallholder farmers and their families in Indonesia. Smallholders contribute more than ninety percent of national production; the remainder comes from state-owned plantations and private estates. In parts of Indonesia, cocoa is responsible for the opening up of primary forests and the establishment of settlements in these previously forested areas. Cocoa intensification system, which increases the fragmentation of primary forests and is considered agriculturally unsustainable, is becoming common in Indonesia. This paper presents the synthesis that resulted from this review as well as the researcher’s critical appraisal of the state of the research field of intensification system and its effect under climate change which the objective remaining stakeholder relevant to the sustainable intensification of farming practices of the poor smallholder farmers in Indonesia.
Cocoa, Smallholders, Climate Change, Sustainable Intensification
To cite this article
Julian Witjaksono, Asmin, Cocoa Farming System in Indonesia and Its Sustainability Under Climate Change, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2016, pp. 170-180. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20160505.15
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vervoort J, Philip K. Thornton, Patti Kristjanson, WiebkeFo, Polly J. Ericksen, Kasper Kok, John S. I. Ingram, Mario Herrero, Amanda Palazzo, Ariella E. S. Helfgott, Angela Wilkinson, PetrHavlı, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, & Chris Jost., Challenges to scenario-guided adaptive action on food security under climate change. Global Environmental Change, 1264, pp. 1-12, 2014.
Wheeler, T & Von Braun., Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341, pp. 508-513, 2013. http://Doi: 10.1126/science.1239402.
IPCC (Intergovermental Panel Climate Change). The Fifth Assessment Report. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptations and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32, 2014.
Indonesian’s Ministry of Agriculture. Grand Strategy 2015-2019, 2015. (In Bahasa).
Indonesia’s Center of Statistical Bureau. Statistic of Indonesia, 2015. (In Bahasa).
FAOSTAT. Statistic of Cocoa Production in The World (2003-2013), 2014.
Indonesia’s Cocoa Association. Future of Growing Cocoa in Indonesia, 2015. (In Bahasa).
ICCO. International Cocoa Organization’s Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa statistic, 2013.
PISAgro. PISAgro News. A Quaterly News Letter. Partnership Support Sustainable FoodProduction. October, 11, 2015.
IPCC (Intergovermental Panel Climate Change). The Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptations and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32, 2014.
FAO. The State of the Food and Agriculture. Chapter 2. World food and agriculture in review. VialedelleTerme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy, pp. 63-81, 2011.
Margono B. A. Advancing indonesian forest resource monitoring using multi-source remotely sensed imagery. Dissertation of Ph.D. Graduate School of The University of Maryland. College Park, 2014.
M. C. Hansen, P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova,A. Tyukavina, D. Thau,S. V. Stehman, S. J. Goetz, T. R. Loveland, A. Kommareddy, A. Egorov, L. Chini, C. O. Justice, J. R. G. Townshend. High Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change. Science, 342, pp. 850-853, 2013.DOI: 10.1126/science.1244693.
FAO. Global Forest Resources Assessment. VialedelleTerme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy, pp. 378, 2010.
RAN (Rainforest Action Network). Report: Lesson from the incencsefores, 2015.
Van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz and J. T. Randerson. CO2 emission from forest loss. Nature Geoscience, 2, pp. 737-738. 2009.
Jonah B, KalifiFerretti-Gallona, Jens Engelmanna, Max Wrightb, Kemen G. Austinc,d, Fred Stollec, Svetlana Turubanovae, Peter V. Potapove, Belinda Margonoe, Matthew C. Hansene, and Alessandro Baccinif. Reduction in emission from deforestation form Indonesia’s Moratorium on new palm oil, timber, and logging consession. Proceeding National Academy of Science, 112, pp. 1328-1333, 2014.
CIFOR. Generating Economic Growth, Rural Livelihoods, and Environmental Benets fromIndonesias Forests: A Summary of Issues and Policy Options. Center for International Forestry Research, report prepared for the World Bank, 2004.
Franzen M and Mulder M. B. Ecological, Economic and Social Perspectives on Cocoa Production Worldwide. Biodiversity Conservation, 16, pp. 3835-3849, 2007.
Belsky JM, Siebert SF. Cultivating Cacao: implications of sun-grown cacao on local food security and environmental sustainability. Agriculture andHuman Values, 20, pp. 277–285, 2003.
Ruf, F. and Schroth, G. Chocolate forests and monocultures: a historical review of Cocoa growing and its conflicting role in tropical deforestation and forest conservation. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes (Eds G. Schroth, G. A. B. Da Fonseca, C.A. Harvey, C. Gascon, H. L. Lasconcelos&A. N. Izac), pp. 107–134., 2003. Island Press,Washington, DC.
Hutchins A, Tamargo A, Bailey C and Kim Y. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Cocoa Production and Approaches to Adaptation and Mitigation: A contextual View of Ghana and Costa Rica. World Cocoa Foundation, 2015.
Anim-Kwapong, G. J. and Frimpong, E. B. Vulnerability of Agriculture to climate change impact of climate on cocoa production. Cocoa Research Institute, New TafoAkim, Ghana, 2005.
Oyekale, A. S., Bolaji, M. B. & Olowa, O. W. The Effects of Climate Change on Cocoa production and Vulnerability Assessment in Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 4, pp. 77–85, 2009.
ICCO. International Cocoa Organization’s Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa statistics. 2003.
Ajewole Davies Ojo and IyandaSadiq. Effect of climate change on cocoa yield: a case of cocoa research institute (CRIN) farm, Oluyole local government Ibadan Oyo State. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12, pp. 350-358, 2010.
Laderach, P., Martinez-Valle, A., Schroth, G. & Castro, N. Predicting the future climatic suitability for cocoa farming of the world’s leading producer countries, Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Climatic Change, 119, pp. 841–854, 2013.
Oluyole, K. A., Emaku, L. A., Aigbekaen, E. O., & Oduwole, O. O. Overview of the trend ofclimate change and its effect on cocoa production in Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 1, pp. 10-13, 2013.
UNDP. Environment Sustainability and Policy for Cocoa Production in Ghana. COCOBOD, pp 56, 2012.
Katoomba. Transition. 2009.
Clay, J. World agriculture and the environment: A commodity-by-commodity guide to impacts and practices. Island Press, Washington, 2004.
Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Bhagwat SA, Buchori D, Faust H, Hertel D, lscher DH, Juhrbandt J, Kessler M, Perfecto I, Scherber1 C, Schroth G, Veldkamp E, Wanger TC. Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes- review. Journal Applied Ecology, 48, pp. 619–629, 2010. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01939.x.
Soto-Pinto L, Anzueto M, Mendoza J, Jimenez Ferrer G, & de Jong B. Carbon sequestration through agroforestry in indigenous communities of Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry System, 78, pp. 39–51, 2010.
Nair PKR, Kumar BM, & Nair VD. Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. Journal of Plant Nutrition andSoil Science, 172 (1), pp. 10–23, 2009.
Clough, Y., H. Faust, and T. Tscharntke. Cacao boom and bust: sustainability of agroforests and opportunities for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Letters 2, pp. 197-205, 2009.
Tscharntke, and O. van Straaten. Effects of an experimental drought on the functioning of a cacao agroforestry system, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Global Change Biology, 16, pp. 1515 1530, 2010.
Rice, R. A. and Greenberg, R. Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity. Ambio, 29 (3) pp. 81-87, 2004.
Uribe Armando, MÈndez Hernando, and MantillJairo. Effect of Balanced Fertilization on Cocoa Yield. Better Crops International, 15, pp. 53, 2001.
Seeberg-Elverfeldt C., Schwarze S., & Zeller M. Payments for Environmental Services - Incentives through Carbon Sequestration Compensation for Cocoa-based Agroforestry Systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. International Journal of the common, 3, pp. 108-130, 2009.
Baah F., Anchirinah V., and Badu-Yeboah A. Perceptions of extension agents on information exchange with cocoa farmers in the Eastern region of Ghana. Scientific Research and Essay, 4, pp. 694-699, 2009.
Zapfack L., Engwald S., Sonke B., Achoundong G., and Madong B. The impact of land conversion on plant biodiversity in the forest zone of Cameroon. Biodiversity Conservation, 11, pp. 2047–2061, 2002.
Gockowski J, & Sonwa, D. Cocoa intensification scenarios and their predicted impact on CO2 emissions, biodiversity conservation, and rural livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa. Environmental Management, 8, pp. 307-321, 2010 doi: 10.1007/s00267-010-9602-3.
Ruf, F. and Zadi H. Cocoa: from deforestation to reforestation. Paper from workshop on Shade Grown Cocoa held in Panama, 3/30-4/2, 1998. Smithsonian institution. Washington, D.C.
Sonwa, D. J., Nkongmeneck, B. A., Weise, S.F., Tchatat, M., Adesina, A. A. and Janssens, M. J. J. Diversity of plants in cocoa agroforests in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, pp. 2385–2400, 2007.
UNDP. Greening the sustainable cocoa supply chain in Ghana
Juhrbandt, J. Economic valuation of land-use change – a case study on rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Georg-August University, Gottingen, 2015.
Nunoo I. Financial viability of cocoa agroforestry systems in Ghana: The case of SefwiWiawso District. Master Thesis, Departement of Agriculture Economics, Agribusiness and Extension. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 2015.
Obiri, B. D., Bright, G. A., McDonald, M. A., Anglaaere, L. C. N. and J. Cobbina. Financial Analysis of Shaded Cocoa in Ghana.Agroforestry Systems, 71, pp. 139-149, 2007.
Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kessler M., Barkmann, J., Bos, M. M., Buchori D., and Erasmi, S. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification. Proceeding National Academy of Science, 12, pp. 4973–4978, 2007.
Bentley J. W, Boa E, Stonehouse J. Neighbor trees: shade, intercropping, and cacao in Ecuador. Human Ecology, 32, pp. 241–270, 2004.
Shriar, A. Determinants of Agricultural Intensity Index “Scores” in a Frontier Region: An Analysis of Data from Northern Guatemala. Agriculture and Human Values,22, pp. 395-410, 2005
Ellis, F. Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000.
Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., Coomes, O. T., Dirzo, R., Fischer, G., Folke, C., George, P. S., Homewood, K., Imbernon, J., Leemans, R., Li, X., Moran, E. F., Mortimore, M., Rama-krishnan, P.S., Richards, J.F., Skånes, H., Steffen, W., Stone, G. D., Svedin, U., Veldkamp, T. A., Vogel, C., Xu, J. The causes of land-use and Introduction, pp.43, 2001.
Perrings, C. The economics of biodiversity loss and agricultural development in low-income countries. In: Lee, D. R., Barrett, C. B. (Eds.). Tradeoffs or synergies? Agricultural intensification, economic development and the environment, 2001. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing Co.
Lee, D. R., Ferraro, P. J., Barrett, C. B. Introduction: Changing perspectives on agricultural intensification, economic development and the environment. In: Lee, D. R., Barrett, C. B. (Eds.). Tradeoffs or synergies? Agricultural intensification, economic development and the environment, 2001.Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing Co.
Turner, B. L., Ali, A. M. S. Induced intensification: Agricultural change in Bangladesh with implications for Malthus and Boserup. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, 93, pp. 14984-14991, 1996.
Ruben, R., Kuyvenhoven, A., Kruseman, G.Bioeconomic Models and Eco-regional Development: Policy Instruments for Sustainable Intensification. In: Lee, D. R., Barrett, C. B. (Eds.). Tradeoffs or synergies? Agricultural intensification, economic development and the environment, 2001. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing Co.
Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., Polasky, S. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418, pp. 671-677, 2002.
Gockowski, J. and Sonwa, D. Biodiversity and Smallholder Cocoa Production Systems in West Africa, STCP Working Paper Series Issue 6, 2008.Available online at
Tomich, T. P., Van Noordwijk, M., Budidarseno, S., Gillison, A., Kusumanto T., Murdiyarso, D. Stolle, F., Fagi, A.M. Agricultural intensification, de-forestation, and the environment: assessing tradeoffs in Sumatra, Indonesia. In: Lee, D. R. a. B., C. B. (Eds.), Tradeoffs or synergies? Agricultural intensification, economic development, and the environment, pp. 221-244, 2001.Wallingford, Oxon, UK. CAB International.
NAS. National Academy of Sciences. Toward Sustainable Agricultural System in the 21st century. Committee on Twenty-First Century System Agriculture. Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies, 2012. National Research Council of the National Academies. USA.
Garnett T, M. C. Appleby, A. Balmford, I. J. Bateman, T. G. Benton, P. Bloomer, B. Burlingame, M. Dawkins, L. Dolan, D. Fraser, M. Herrero, I. Hoffmann, P. Smith, P. K. Thornton, C. Toulmin, S. J. Vermeulen,H. C. J. Godfray. Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: Premises and Policies, Science, 341, pp. 33-34, 2013.
United Nations. Solutions for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems. Technical report for the post-2015 development agenda, 2013.
Carsan M, Aldo Stroebel, Ian Dawson, Roeland Kindt, CheikhMbow, JeremiasMowo and RamniJamnadass. Can agroforestry option valuesimprove the functioning of drivers of agricultural intensification in Africa? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 6, pp. 35-40, 2014.
Keating, B. A., Carberry, P. S., Bindraban, P., Asseng, S., Meinke, H. and Dixon, J. Eco-efficient agriculture: concepts, challenges and opportunities. Crop Science, 50, pp. 109-119, 2010.
Flynn DFB, Gogol-Prokurat M, Nogeire T, Molinari N, Richers BT.Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecology Letter, 12, pp. 22–33, 2009. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01255.x.
Leakey RRB. Agroforestry: a delivery mechanism for multifunctional agriculture. 2009. Nova Publications, James Cook University, Cairns.
Mbow C, van Noordwijk M, Luedeling E, Neufeldt H, Minang PA, Kowero G. Agroforestry solutions to address food security and climate change challenges in Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainnability, 6, pp. 61-67, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2013.10.014.
Luedeling E, Huth NI, Kindt R, Konig K. Agroforestry systems in a changing climate challenges in projecting future performance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainnability, 6, pp. 1-7, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.013.
Mbow C, Smith P, Skole D, Duguma L, Bustamante M. Achieving Mitigation and Adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa. Current Opinion inEnvironmentalSustainnability, 6, pp. 8-14, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.09.002.
Minang PA, Duguma LA, Bernard F, Metz O, van Noordwijk M. Prospects for Agroforestry in REDD+ landscapes in Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainnability, 6, pp. 78-82, 2014.
Garrity DP, Akinnifesi FK, Ajayi OC, Weldesemayat SG, Mowo JG, Kalinganire A, Larwanou M, Bayala J. Evergreen agriculture: a robust approach to sustainable food security in Africa. Food Security, 2, pp. 197-214, 2010. DOI 10.1007/s12571-010-0070-7.
Sendzimir J, Reij CP, Magnuszewski P. Rebuilding resilience in the Sahel: regreening in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger. Ecology and Society, 16 (3), pp. 1608, 2011.
Scrotch, G & Harvey, C. A. Biodirversity conservation in cocoa production landscape: An Overview. Biodiversity Consevation, 16(8), pp. 2237-2244, 2007. DOI 10.1007/s10531-007-9195-1.
Franzen, M & Mulder, M. B. Ecological, economic and social perspektive on cocoa production worldwide. Biodiversity Consevation, 16 (8), pp. 3835-3849, 2007. DOI 10.1007/s10531-007-9183-5.
DaghelaBisseleua HB, Fotio D, Yede, Missoup AD, Vidal S (2013) Shade Tree Diversity, Cocoa Pest Damage, Yield Compensating Inputs and Farmers’ Net Returns in West Africa. PLoS ONE 8 (3), pp. 1-9, 2013. e56115. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056115.
Wood, G. A. R. and R. A. Lass. pp.620, 2001. Cocoa. 4th edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Bos, M. M., I. Steffan-Dewenter, and T. Tscharntke. Shade tree management affects fruit abortion, insect pests and pathogens of cacao. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 120, pp: 201-205, 2007.
Clough Y, Barkmann J, Juhrbandt J, Kessler M, Wanger TC, Anshary A, Buchori D, Cicuzza D, Darras K, Putra DD, Erasmi S, Pitopang R, Schmidt C, Schulze CH, Seidel D, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stenchly K, Vidal S, Weist M, Wielgoss AC, Tscharntke T. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests. Proceeding National Academy of Science, 108(20), pp. 8311-6, 2001. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1016799108.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186