Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 284-290
Received: Nov. 3, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 11, 2015;
Published: Dec. 2, 2015
Views 4189 Downloads 107
Edache Ernest Ekoja, Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Olufemi Richard Pitan, Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Folashade Temitope Olaosebikan, Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
The effects of location, maize types and borer control with carbofuran (Furadan 3G®) on the severity of maize stem borer infestation and damage was investigated in the late maize planting season of 2011. Treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design using a split-slip-plot factorial arrangement. Whole plot factor consisted of two locations (Southern Guinea Savanna and Rainforest agro-ecological zones of Nigeria), subplot factor consisted of 1.5 kg a.i.ha-1 and 0.0 kg a.i.ha-1 of carbofuran, while the sub-sub-plot factor comprised of three endosperm types of maize (flint, pop and sweet corn). Stem borer infestation (quantified by dead heart count and larval population per plant) and damage (quantified by %lodged stem, %bored internodes, %bored ears, number of exit holes, number of stem borer cavities and number of damaged seeds per plant) as well as yield were compared. Results revealed that borer infestation and damage were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the Rainforest compared with the Savanna. Single dose application of carbofuran (1.5 kg a.i. ha-1) also significantly (P < 0.05) increased grain yield in all the maize types at both locations. For all parameters, no significant (P > 0.05) location × carbofuran × maize type and location × maize type effect was detected. However, significant (P < 0.05) location × carbofuran and carbofuran × maize type interaction effects were observed. We conclude that in both agro ecologies, flint corn was more tolerant of borer attack while sweet corn was more susceptible compared to either flint or popcorn. In addition, carbofuran at 1.5 kg a.i.ha-1 can significantly reduce stem borer population in the three maize types.
Edache Ernest Ekoja,
Olufemi Richard Pitan,
Folashade Temitope Olaosebikan,
Variations in Stem Borer Infestation and Damage in Three Maize (Zea mays L.) Types in Southern Guinea Savanna and Rainforest Zones of Nigeria, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2015, pp. 284-290.
Altieri, M. A. and Nicholls C. I. 2004. Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems, 2nd editors. The Haworth Press Inc. URL: http://www.scribd.com/doc/12591031/Biodiversity-and-Pest-Management-in-Agroecosystems
Balogun, O. S. and Tanimola, O. S. 2001. Preliminary studies on the occurrence of stem borer and incidence of stalk rot under varying plant population densities in maize. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 1: 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jard.v1i1.42191
Bosque-pérez N A. and Mareck J. H. 1990. Distribution and composition of lepidopterous maize borers in southern Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 80: 363–368. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300050604
Bosque-pérez, N. A. 1995. Major insect pests of maize in Africa: biol¬ogy and control. IITA Research Guide 30. Second edition. Training Pro¬gram, Inter¬na¬tional Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. 30 p. URL: http://www.fao.org/sd/erp/toolkit/books/majorinsectpestsofmaize.doc
Bosque-perez, N. A. and Schulthess, F. 1998. Maize: West and Central Africa. In Polaszek, (ed.). African Cereal Stem borers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 11-24. URL: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/2399
Egwuatu, R. I. and Ita, C. B. 1982. Some effects of single and split application of Carbofuran on the incidence of damage by Locris maculata, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis on maize. Tropical Pest Management: 28:227-283. DOI: 10.1080/09670878209370721
FAOSTAT 2013. Maize yield estimate for Nigeria. FAO Statistics Division. Retrieved 10:00 GMT 18 April, 2013.
Genstat Discovery Edition 4 (2011). VSN International Ltd., Rothamsted Experimental Station.
Girling, D. J. 1980. Eldana saccharina as a crop pest in Ghana. Tropical Pest Management. 26: 156-156. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670878009414386
Hammond, R. B. and Pedigo, L. P. 1982. Determination of yield-loss relationships for soyabeans defoliators by using simulated insect-defoliation techniques. Journal of Economic Entomology 75: 102-107. DOI: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/1982/00000075/00000001/art00026
Harris, K. M. 1962. Lepidopterous stem borers of cereals in Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 53:139-171. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300048021
Harris K. M. 1990. Bioecology of Chilo species. Insect Science and its Application 11: 467-477. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400021044
Holloway J. D. 1998. Noctuidae: Introduction. In: Polaszek A, editor. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control, pp. 79-86. CTA/CABI International. URL: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/2399
Iken J. E and N. A. Amusa 2010. Consumer acceptability of seventeen popcorn maize (Zea mays L.) varieties in Nigeria African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 5(5), 405-407. URL: http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJAR/article-abstract/2B5B9D627885
Iken, J. E. and Amusa, N. A. 2004. Maize Research and Production in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 3 (6): 306. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2004.000-2056
IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) 2014. Maize. URL: http://www.iita.org/maize 22nd June, 2014
Kfir, R. 2013. Maize Stem Borers in Africa: Ecology and Manage-ment. Encyclopedia of Pest Management. Taylor and Francis: New York, Published online http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/E-EPM-120048597
Kfir, R. 2002. Increase in cereal; stem borer populations through partial elimination of natural enemies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 104: 299-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1570-7458.2002.01016.x
Maes K. 1998. Pyraloidea: Crambidae, Pyralidae. pp. 87–98 In. Polaszek A. 1998. African Cereal Stem Borers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 530 pp. DOI: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/2399
Mailafiya D.M., Le Ru B.P., Kairu E. W., Dupas S, Calatayud P.A. 2011. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats. Journal of Insect Science 11:15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1673/031.011.0115
Moyal, P. 1995. Borer infestation and damage in relation to maize stand density and water stress in the Ivory Coast. International Journal of Pest Management. 41:114-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670879509371934
NRI (Natural Resource Institute) 1996. A Guide to Insect Pests of Nigerian Crops: Identification, Biology and Control. Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources and the Oversea Development Administration. UK.
Okrikata, E., and C. Anaso 2008. Influence of some inert diluents of neem kernel powder on protection of sorghum against pink stalk borer (Sesemia Calamistis, Homps) in Nigerian Sudan Savanna. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 48 (2):161-168. DOI: 10.2478/v10045-008-0019-4.
Polaszek, A. 1998. African Cereal Stem borers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. CAB international, Wallingford, UK, 345p. DOI: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/2399
Schulthess, F., Bosque-perez, N.A. and Gonuou, S. 1991. Sampling lepidopterous pests on maize in West Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 8: 297-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300033575
Schulthess, F., Bosque-Pe´rez, N.A., Chabi-Olaye, A., Gounou, S., Ndemah, R. & Goergen, G. 1997. Exchanging natural enemies species of lepidopterous cereal stemborers between African regions. Insect Science and its Application, 17, 97–108.
Sithole, S. Z. 1987. The effect of date of planting on shootfly and stem borer infestations on sorghum, pp. 174 - 183. In Proceedings of the Third Regional Workshop on Sorghum and Millets for Southern Africa, 6 - 10 October 1986, Lusaka, Zambia, ICRISAT, Patancheru.
Smith, J. W., Wiedenmann R. N., Overholt W. A. 1993. Parasites of lepidopteran stem borers of tropical gramineous plants. ICIPE Science Press. URL: http://www.abebooks.com/Parasites-Lepidopteran-Stemborers-Tropical-Gramineous-Plants/10814893292/bd
Youm, O., Harris, K. M., and Nwanze, K. F. 1996. Coniesta ignefusalis (Hompson), the millet stem borer: a handbook of information. (In En. Summaries in En, Fr, Es.) Information Bulletin no. 46. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 60 pp. URL: http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/26607464