Examinations of the Stomach Contents of Two Fish Species (Clarias Gariepinus and Oreochromis Niloticus) in Lake Alau, North – Eastern Nigeria
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 405-409
Received: Oct. 12, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 29, 2014;
Published: Nov. 10, 2014
Views 3145 Downloads 273
Umaru Buba Wakil, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Unimaid, Nigeria
A. B. Haruna, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Eyimgba, Kogi State, Nigeria
Gwana Adamu Mohammed, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Wanas Lalai Ndirmbita, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Unimaid, Nigeria
Bukar-Kolo M. Yachilla, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Unimaid, Nigeria
Mohammed Umar Kumai, Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Nigeria
This study was conducted on the examinations of the stomach contents of two commercially important fish species of Catfish and Tilapia fish (Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus) known as “Tarwada” and “Karfasa” in Hausa language, determined from Lake Alau, North – Eastern Nigeria, using frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods between June to December, 2013. Gill nets and Malian traps were used to catch the fish every fortnight. Three hundred and fifty (350) individual fish of each species obtained and their stomach contents examined. The results obtained expressed in mean percentage indicated that out of the three hundred and fifty (350) individual fish of each species examined, 121 (35%) fish had an empty stomach contents in Clarias gariepinus, and out of the 350 samples examined, 145 fish had an empty stomach content in Oreochromis niloticus representing 41%. The stomach contents of Clarias gariepinus consisted of animal and plant materials, planktons, (zooplanktons and phytoplankton) and others. Fish prey was the dominant animal material (51%) with mean contribution of 32% by volume, and plant material consisted of leaves and offal (6% by volume). The stomach content of Oreochromis niloticus consisted mainly of animal and plant materials, planktons and detritus. Algae represented by Chlorella, Volvox, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, and Spirogyra species accounted for 66% by volume followed by detritus and mud with 20 %, zooplankton represented by Daphnia and Moina species represented the low food content by volume with 8 %. The study reveals the importance of algae, fish, insects and plant materials as food for fish in Lake Alau, and zooplanktons form important items in the diet of the species examined. Both species are omnivorous and occupy the same ecological niche; hence, there is the need to control pollution into the lake to prevent eutrophication.
Umaru Buba Wakil,
A. B. Haruna,
Gwana Adamu Mohammed,
Wanas Lalai Ndirmbita,
Bukar-Kolo M. Yachilla,
Mohammed Umar Kumai,
Examinations of the Stomach Contents of Two Fish Species (Clarias Gariepinus and Oreochromis Niloticus) in Lake Alau, North – Eastern Nigeria, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2014, pp. 405-409.
Abdel-aziz, N.E and Gharib, S.M. “Food for feeding habits of rund sardinella (sardinellaaurita) in El- mex Bay, Alexandria, Egypt” Egypt: J. Aquat Res.33:202-221. 2007.
Babatunde, D.O., and Aminu, R. “Field guide to Nigeria freshwater Fisheries”, second edition; 47-49. 2004.
Bankole, N.O; Sule, O.D; Okwundu, E.C. and Amadu, M. “Preliminary investigation into the fresh and catch assessment survey of Lake Alau”. Annual report to National Institute for freshwater fisheries Pp.22. 1994.
Burton, M.N. The Biology of Clarias gariepinus (Buchell, 1822) in lake, sibaya,kwazulu with emphasis on the role as the predator. Unpublished, Department of Zoology Institution for Freshwater Studies, Rhodes University. 1994.
BSMLS, “Borno State Ministry of land survey”, Topographical Map. Maiduguri, Nigeria.2002.
CBDA. “A Resettlement Plan for the Lake Alau Dam, Jere bowl scheme”. Agricultural survey and background studies report submitted to Chad Basin Development Authority by Askonning Nig, Ltd. 89. 1984.
Dadebo E. “Reproductive Biology and feeding habits of the catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell (pices: clariidae) in lake Awassa, Ethiopia” SINET. Ethiop. J.Sci.23:231-246. 2000.
Dadebo E. “Filter feeding habits of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus” Burchell, 1822 (pises: Clariidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. Ethiopia. J. Biol. Sci. 8(1):15-30. 2009.
David DL. Edward A, Adass PA, Jesse C. “Some aspect of water quality and the Biology of Clarias gariepinus in Vimtim Stream, Mubi Adamawa state, Nigeria.” World J. fish mar. Sci. 2(2):129-133. 2010.
EL Gamal Ael-R Ismail NM. “Food composition and feeding habit of some fresh water of fishes in various water systems at Abbassa, Egypt, with special reference to snail transmitting diseases.” J. Egypt. Soc. Paracitol. 35(2):637-52. 2005.
Getabu A. “A comparative study on the feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus in Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria and sewage ponds”, In: proceeding of the second EEC Regional seminar on Recant Trend of Research on Lake Victoria Fisheries, Kisumu, Kenya, 25-27 September 1992 (Eds. Okemwa E. Wakwabi E and GETABU A). ICIPE, press, Nairobi, Kenya. 1994.
Gwana, Adamu Mohammed; Mshelia, Ngita Hassan; Abdullahi, Mumin Mai; Auwal, Mohammed Shu’aibu; Bagudu, Buhari Yawuri; Mala, B. Mohammed, Abdullahi, Hala Mai; Sadiq, Aji Bukar. “Effects of Domestic Wastes on Water from Shallow – Wells in Moduganari, Nigeria.” International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 185-190. doi: 10.11648/ijema. 20140204.11
Hynes, H.B.N. “The food of water stickle backs (Gastrotesteus aculatus and pygosteus pungitus) with a review of methods used in studies of the food of fishes.” J. Eco, 19:36-58. 1950.
Munro. “African Inland water fisheries and environmental processing of fishes” Fisheries Society of Nigeria, Pp. 74. 2001.
Njiru, M; Okeyo-Owuor, J.B; Muchiri, M; Cowx, I.G. “Shift in the food of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Lake Victoria, kenya,” Afr. J. Ecol. 42: 163-170. 2004.
O’Brien WJ. “Planktivoury by fish”; thrust and parry in pelagia.Pp 3-16. In: predation and indirect effect on aquatic communities W.C. kerfoot & ASih (eds), University press of new England, Hanover Pp. p.480. 1987.
Omondi R, Yasindi AW. Magana AM. “Spatial and temporal variations of zooplankton in Relation to some environmental factors in lake Baringo, Kenya”. Eger. J. Sci. Technol 11:29-50. 2011.
Shalloof, KAS, Khalifa N. “Stomach contents and feeding habit of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) from Abu-Zabal lakes, Egypt. World appl. Sci. J. 6 (1):1-5. 2009.
Royle, W. “Observation on feeding habits of Clarias barrage experimental pond found in food scheme Technology.” No.5, Vol. 2. 76 - 79. 2001.
Skelton P. “A complete Guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa”. Halfway House: Southern Book publishers Ltd. 1993.
Stroud, K.A & Booth, D.J. “Statistical Package”, In: Engineering Mathematics.WWW. Palgrave.Com / Stroud, Pal grave, 5th Edition, GB, London; 1130 – 1139. 2001.
Yalcin S, solak U, solak K. “Stomach Contents of the catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi, Turkey”. Turk.J. zool.25: 461-468. 2001.
Yalcin, S; Solak, k; A.Kyurt, I. “Growth of catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Claridea) in River Asi (Orontes), Turkey.” Cybium 26(3): 163-172. 2002.
Zaret, T.M. “Predation of freshwater communities” Yale University press. New Haven. P.187.1980.