South polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) (further SPS) gravitate toward human activities in the Antarctic. They form active obliged aggregations (further AOA) in places of utilization of kitchen waste and enter into numerous aggressive interactions among themselves. Objective: to establish the possible role of the AOA obtaining leg injuries by SPS and the influence of human activity in this process. The investigations were carried out at the Russian Antarctic station Mirny (66˚33'11" S, 93˚00'35" E, Haswell archipelago, Davis Sea, East Antarctica). 13.01-30.03.2015-26.10.2015-11.01.2016 the feeding behavior of skuas was recorded in the video mode on camera Sony Cyber-shot DSC-WX220 Black. The total length of the analyzed video is 2308 minutes 40 seconds. Out of the 97 SPS captured and examined, 33 individuals (34%) had 54 cases of web injuries — 35 (64.81%) cuts and 19 (35.19%) punctures. Among 1374 aggressive contacts between skuas, evidence of damage to the webs on their feet in the analyzed sample was not registered and the probability of damage to the membranes was less than 0.2% at CI = 95%, that is, it was close to "0". This number was not extrapolated to the whole life cycle of the SPS. The difficulty of extrapolation lies in the absence of the quantitative data on the total number of aggressive interactions of SPS in its annual cycle and the changes to this number in the course of the whole life cycle of an individual. There is also no opportunity obtain the data on the aggressive behavior of the skua around the natural food sources to compare with that around the anthropogenic food sources. The aforementioned factors were conducive only to partial goal achievement.
Golubev Sergey Vladimirovich,
Injuries of Webs on the Feet of South Polar Skuas Catharacta Maccormicki: Results of Studying Active Obliged Aggregations, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2018, pp. 65-73.
E. J. Woehler, D. Ainley and J. Jabour, «Human Impacts to Antarctic Wildlife: Predictions and Speculations for 2060», in Antarctic Futures: Human Engagement with the Antarctic Environment. T. Tin, D. Liggett, P. T. Maher, and M. Lammers, Eds. Netherlands: Springer, pp. 27–60.
Ritz, M. S., S. Hahn, T. Janicke, and H.-U. Peter (2006). Hybridisation between South polar skua (Catharatca maccormicki) and Brown skua (C. antarctica lonnbergi) in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Polar Biology 29, 153–159.
Ritz, M. S., C. Millar, G. D. Miller, R. A. Phillips, P. Ryan, V. Sternkopf, D. Liebers-Helbig, and H.-U. Peter (2008). Phylogeography of the southern skua complex – rapid colonization of the southern hemisphere during a glacial period and reticulate evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49, 292-303.
Spellerberg, J. (1967). Distribution of the McCormick skua (Catharacta maccormicki). Notornis 14, 201-207.
Starck W. (1980). The avifauna of Haswell Island (East Antarctica) in summer of 1978/79. Polish Polar Research 1, 183-196.
Ainley, D. G., S. H. Morrell, and R. C. Wood (1986). South polar skua breeding colonies in the Ross sea region, Antarctica. Notornis 33, 155-163.
Ryan, P. G. and B. P. Watkins (1988). Birds of the inland mountains of western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Cormorant 16, 34-40.
Filcek, K. and K. Zieliński (1990). Report on the expedition of Polish biologist to Bunger Hills. Polish Polar Research 11, 161-167.
Micol, T. and P. Jouventin (2001). Long-term population trends in seven Antarctic seabirds at Pointe Géologie (Terre Adélie). Human impact compared with environmental change. Polar Biology 24, 175-185.
Venkataraman, K. and A. K. Hazra (2005). Studies on south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) in and around Maitri, Schirmachear Oasis, Antarctica. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 105, 139-145.
Malzof, S. L. and R. D. Quintana (2008). Diet of the south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki and the brown skua C. antarctica lonnbergi at Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 31, 827-835.
Chwedorzewska, K. J. and M. Korczak (2010). Human impact upon the environment in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Polish Polar Research 31, 45-60.
Wilson, K-J., C. Turney, C. Fogwill, and J. Hunter (2015). Low numbers and apparent long-term stability of South Polar Skuas Stercorarius maccormicki at Commonwealth Bay, Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 43, 103–106.
Spellerberg, J. F. (1971). Breeding behavior of the McCormick skua Catharacta Maccormicki in Antarctica. Ardea 59, 189-231.
Maxson, S. J. and N. P. Bernstein (1982). Kleptoparasitism by south polar skuas on blue-eyed shags in Antarctica. Wilson Bulletin 94, 269-281.
Young, E. C. (1994). Skua and penguin, predator and prey. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bentley, M. J. (2004). Aerial predation by a south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki on a snow petrel Pagodroma nivea in Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 32, 115-116.
Pryor, M. E. (1968). The avifauna of Haswell Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Research Series 12, 57–82.
Reinhardt, K., S. Hahn, H.-U Peter, and H. Wemhoff (2000). A review of the diets of southern hemisphere skuas. Marine Ornithology 28, 7-19.
Hahn, S., M. S. Ritz, and K. Reinhardt (2008). Marine foraging and annual fish consumption of a south polar skua population in the maritime Antarctic. Polar Biology 31, 959–969.
Montalti D., R. Casaux, N. Coria, G. Soave, and M. G. Grilli (2009). The importance of ﬁsh in the diet of the South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki) at the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Emu 109, 305–309.
Grilli, M. G. and D. Montalty (2012). Trophic interactions between brown and south polar skuas at Deception Island, Antarctica. Polar Biology 35, 299–304.
Kopp, M., H-U. Peter, O. Mustafa, S. Lisovski, M. S. Ritz, R. A. Phillips, and S. Hahn (2011). South polar skuas from a single breeding population overwinter in different oceans though show similar migration patterns. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 435, 263–267.
Weimerskirch, H., A. Tarroux, O. Chastel, K. Delord, Y. Cherel, and S. Descamps (2015). Population-specific wintering distributions of adult south polar skuas over three oceans. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 538: 229–237.
Higgins, P. J. and S. J. J. F. Davies (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds 3, Snipe to Pigeon. Part A. Melbourne. Oxford University Press.
Wood, R. C. (1971). Population dynamics of breeding south polar skuas of unknown age. Auk 88, 805-814.
Ainley, D. G., C. A. Ribic, and R. C. Wood (1984). Population studies of the South Polar Skua. Antarctic Journal of the United States 19, 167-168.
Tin, T., Z. L. Fleming, K. A. Hughes, D. G. Ainley, P. Convey, C. A. Moreno, S. Pfeiffer, J. Scott, and I. Snape (2009). Impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment. Antarctic Science 21, 3–33.
Grilli, M. G., M. Liberetti, and D. Montalty (2011). Diet of South Polar Skua Chicks in Two Areas of Sympatry with Brown Skua. Waterbirds 34, 495-498.
Panov E. N. (1983). Animal behavior and ethological structure of populations. "Nauka". Moscow. (in Russian).
Pezzo, F., S. Olmastroni, S. Corsolini, and S. Focardi (2001). Factors affecting the breeding success of the south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki at Edmonson Point, Victoria Land, Antarctica. Polar Biology 24, 389-393.
Sierakowski, K., M. Korczak-Abshire, and P. Jadwiszczak (2017). Changes in bird communities of Admiralty Bay, King George Island (West Antarctic): insights from monitoring data (1977-1996). Polish Polar Research 38, 231-262.
Wang, Z., and F. I. Norman (1993). Timing of breeding, breeding success and chick growth in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) in the eastern Lasermann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Notornis 40, 189-203.
Young, E. C. and C. D. Millard (1999). Skua (Catharacta sp.) foraging behavior at the Cape Crozier Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony, Ross Island, Antarctica, and implications for breeding. Notornis 46, 287-297.
Ainley, D. G., E. F. OˈConnor, and R. J. Boekelheide (1984). The marine ecology of birds in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Ornithological monographs 32. Washington: American ornithologistsˈ Union.
Young, E. C. (1963а). Feeding habits of the south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki. Ibis 105, 301-318.
Peter, H-U., M. Kaiser, and A. Gebauer (1990). Ecological and Morphological Investigations on South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Brown Skuas (Catharacta skua lonnbergi) on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 117, 201–218.
Mizin, I. A. (2015). South polar skua Catharacta maccormicki near the station Mirny (Antarctica) in 2009-2010. The Russian Ornithological Journal 24, 499-505. (in Russian).
Pietz, P. J. (1986). Daily activity patterns of south polar and brown skuas near Palmer Station, Antarctica. Auk 103, 726-736.
Pietz, P. J. (1987). Feeding and nesting ecology of sympatric south polar and brown skuas. Auk 104, 617-627.
Eklund, C. R. (1961). Distribution and life history studies of the south-polar skua. Bird-banding 32, 187-223.
Miller, G. D., C. E. Wallace, B. M. Keimel, and P. Martin (1992). South polar skuas at McMurdo Station, Ross Island, 1991-1992. Antarctic Journal of the United States 27, 148-150.
Reid, B. E. (1966). The growth and development of the south polar skua (Catharatca maccormicki). Notornis 13, 81-89.
Young, E. C., and C. D. Millar (2003). Siblicidal brood reduction in South Polar Skuas. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 30, 79-93.
Young, E. C. (1963). The breeding behavior of the south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki. Ibis 105, 203-233.
Eppley, Z. A. and M. A. Rubega (1990). Indirect effects of an oil spill: reproductive failure in a population of South Polar skuas following the 'Bahia Paraiso' oil spill in Antarctica. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 67, 1-6.
Trivelpiece, W. (1980). Ecological studies of pygoscelid penguins and Antarctic skuas. Ph. D. dissertation. Syracuse. State Univ. New York.