Effect of Salinity on Feed Conversion Rate, Feed Conversion Efficiency, Protein Intake and Efficiency of Protein Utilization Ratio in Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 3-1, May 2017, Pages: 30-35
Received: Oct. 15, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 1, 2016; Published: Mar. 6, 2017
Views 1562      Downloads 51
Mohammed Shaker Al_Khshali, Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of increased salinity on some growth parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish, gradually have been exposed to the salt concentrations of 5, 10 and 15g/L, as well as tap water (control treatment of 0.1 g/L) for 84 days divided on 12 weeks, and each of salt concentration represented independent treatment with two replications. 80 fish at average weight of 15 ± 3 g were randomly distributed on 8 glass tanks at 10 fish / tank to study the effect of salinity on feed conversion rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein intake and efficiency of protein utilization ratio in common carp. Results showed a decrease in feed conversion rate to16.59, 24.49 and -20.11, when the salinity increased to 5, 10 and 15 g/L respectively, compared to the control treatment (13.32). This is reflected on feed conversion efficiency, which slump to 6.02, 4.08 and - 4.97% in the salt concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 g/L respectively, compared to the control treatment (7.50%). Protein intake, also decreased to 25.23, 24.07 and 21.37% with the increasing of salinity to 5, 10 and 15 g/L respectively, compared to the control treatment (25.67%), while the efficiency of protein utilization slump to 21.32, 10.94 and -10.07% in the salt concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 g/L, respectively while it was 29.16% in the control treatment. Fish were fed on a commercial diet with a protein content of 31% during the experiment.
Salinity, Feed Conversion and Efficiency, Protein Intake, Protein Utilization, Common Carp
To cite this article
Mohammed Shaker Al_Khshali, Effect of Salinity on Feed Conversion Rate, Feed Conversion Efficiency, Protein Intake and Efficiency of Protein Utilization Ratio in Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue:Environmental Toxicology. Vol. 5, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 30-35. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2017050301.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
AlFaez, N. A., Abdul Ghani, J. A., and Yesser, A. K. T. (2009). Effect of different Salt concentrations on survival, growth and feeding of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry, Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, 26 (2): 59-70.
Najjar, G. A. (2009). Seasonal variations in the concentrations of heavy elements on the muscles of three fish species of Cyprinidae in Al-Howeizeh marsh and eastern Al-Hammar, M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture - University of Basrah, 78 pp.
Morgan, J. D., & Iwama, G. K. (1991). Effects of salinity on growth, metabolism, and ion regulation in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci., 48 (11), 2083-2094.
Lambert, Y., Dutil, J. D., & Munro, J. (1994). Effects of intermediate and low salinity conditions on growth rate and food conversion of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can. J. Fish Sci., 51: 1569–76.
Ferraris R. P., Catacutan M. R., Mabelin R. L. &Jazul A. P. (1986). Digestibility in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): effects of protein source, fish size and salinity. Aquaculture, 59: 93-105.
De Silva S. S. and Perera P. A. B. (1976). Studies on the young grey mullet, Mugil cephalus L. Effects of salinity on food intake, growth and food conversion. Aquaculture, 7: 327–338.
Swanson, C. (1996). Early development of milkfish: effects of salinity on embryonic and larval metabolism, yolk absorption and growth. J Fish Biol., 48: 405–21.
Alava, V. R. (1998;). Effect of salinity, dietary lipid source and level on growth of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry. Aquaculture,167: 229–236.
McCormick, S. D. (1996). Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on salinity tolerance and gill Na+, K+-ATPase in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): interaction with cortisol. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 101: 3–11.
Jobling, M. (1993). Bioenergetics, feed intake and energy partitioning. In j. c. Ranking, & F. B. Jensen, Fish Ecophysiol (pp. 1-44). London: Chapman and Hall.
Mylonas, C. C., Pavlidis, M., Papandroulakis, N., Zaiss, M. M., Tsafarakis, D., Papadakis, I. E., & Varsamos, S. (2009). Growth performance and osmoregulation in the shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa) adapted to different environment salinities. Aquaculture., 287,: 203-210.
Laiz-Carrión, R., Sangiao-Alvarellos, S., Guzmán, J. M., Martín del Río, M. P., Soengas, J. L., & Mancera, J. M. (2005b). Growth performance of gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata in different osmotic conditions: Implications for osmoregulation and energy metabolism. Aquaculture, 250: 849–861.
Barman, U. K., Jana, S. N., Garg, S. K., & Arasu, A. R. (2005). Effect of inland water salinity on growth, feed conversion efficiency and intestinal enzyme activity in growing of grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L.): Field and laboratory studies. Aquaculture International, 13: 41–256.
McCormick, S. D., Moyes, C. D., & Ballantyne, 1. (1989). Influence of salinity on the energetics of gill and kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 6: 243–254.
Partridge, G. J., & Jenkins, G. I. (2002). The effect of salinity on growth and survival of juvenile black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri). Aquaculture, 210-219.
Likongwe, J. S., Stecko, T. D., Stauffer, J. R., & Carline, R. F. (1996). Combined effects of water temperature and salinity on growth and feed utilization of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus). Aquaculture 146: 37–46.
Abo- Hegab, S., & Hanke, W. (1982). Electrolyte changes and volume regulatory processes in the carp during osmotic stress. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1A (2): 157-164.
Luz, R. K., Martinez-Alvarez, R. M., DePedro, N., & Delgado, M. J. (2008). Growth, food intake regulation and metabolic adaptation in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) Exposed to different salinity. J. Aqua., 276 (1-4): 171-178.
Xia, J. H.; Liu, F.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Fu, J.; Feng, J.; Li, J. & Yue, G. H. (2010). Aconsensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on micro satellites and SNPs, BMC Genomic, 11-13.
Yesser, A. K. T.; Ahmed, H. A. & Albadri, M. E. (1999). Effect of salinity on growth and food conversion effeciency of Liza carinata. Mar. Mesopotamia, 14 (2): 265-277.
DeBoeck, G., Vlaeminck, A., Linden,, A., & Blust, R. (2000). The energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) when exposed to salt stress: an increase in energy expenditure or effects of starvation. Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 73 (1): 102-111.
Wang, J. Q., Lui, H., Po, H., & Fan, L. (1997). Influence of salinity on food consumption, growth and energy conversion efficiency of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Aquaculture, 148: 115–124.
Maceina, M. J., & Shireman, V. J. (1979). Grass carp: Effect of salinity on survival, weight loss, and muscle tissue water content. The prog. fish culture, 41 (2): 69-73.
Lawson, E. O., & Alake, S. A. (2011). Salinity Adaptability and Tolerance of Hatchery Reared Comet Goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758). International Journal of Zoological Research, 7: 68-76.
Schofield, P. J., Peterson, M. S., Lowe, M. R., Brown-Peterson, N. J., & Slack, W. T. (2011). Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities. Marine and Freshwater Research 62 (5): 439-449.
Küçük, S. (2013). The effects of salinity on growth of goldfish Carassius auratus and crucian carp, Carassius carassius. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (16): 2082-2087.
Imsland, A. K., Gustavsson, A., Gunnarsson, S., Foss, A., Àrnason, J., Arnarson, I.,. Thorarensen, H. (2008). Effect of reduce salinities on growth, food conversion efficiency and blood physiology of Juvenile Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture., 274: 254-259.
McCormick, S. D. (2001). Endocrine control of osmoregulation in fish. American Zoologist, 41: 781–794.
Daham, N. K. and Sayyab, A. A. (2002). Impact of salty acclimation on increase of the salinity endurance in juveniles of grass carp Cetenopharyngodon idella (Val.). Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15 (3): 191-198.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186