Healing Effects of Wheat Grass (Triticum aestivum L) Extracts on RBC Membrane Damage
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 22-27
Received: Aug. 11, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 12, 2014;
Published: Oct. 15, 2014
Views 3256 Downloads 172
Sudhakar Malla, Indian Academy Degree College, Centre for Research & PG studies, Bangalore, India
Manish Kumar Mourya, Indian Academy Degree College, Centre for Research & PG studies, Bangalore, India
Debashree Halder, Indian Academy Degree College, Centre for Research & PG studies, Bangalore, India
Fatemeh Gomroki, Indian Academy Degree College, Centre for Research & PG studies, Bangalore, India
Hamzah basil Mohammed, Indian Academy Degree College, Centre for Research & PG studies, Bangalore, India
The study was mainly designed to validate the healing effects of wheat grass on RBC membrane damage. RBC membrane damage can be due to several factors, of which the free radical damage takes a major part. Many medicinal herbs have been used in study to find out their potential role in healing effects and at the same time in scavenging the free radicals. Several works were proved of the possible role of the flavonoids and phenols in the healing effects. A detailed study was done on the extracts of wheat grass in relation to its healing effects on the RBC membrane damage. The fractions (Chloroform & Methanol) were initially screened for the Phenolics and Flavonoids and then estimated for the total polyphenols. Further, the fractions were used for tested for the invitro experiments on the rat blood sample. % inhibition of Haemolysis, Chelating activity and SH group measurement are tested with the evaluated fractions. The plant responded positive for both the phytochemicals screened. The results of Folin –Ciocalteu total phenols photometric assay showed that the Methanol fraction was shown to contain more polyphenols (41%), than the chloroform fraction. Both the chloroform and methanol extracts showed the inhibition of haemolysis. Percent inhibition of haemolysis was dose dependent in both the fractions. The IC50 values of chloroform and methanol are 1.689 mg/ml and 2.481 mg/ml respectively. The IC50 values were calculated from the equation of slope (Y=mx+c), where Y is taken as 50. The SH group content showed an abrupt decrease in the presence of the SH group inhibitor Tetrathionate. The control showed a high value normally. When the samples containing Tetrathionate were preincubated with the chloroform and methanol extracts, the values showed an abrupt increase in respect to the Tetrathionate treated samples. This increase in the values from 195 to about 326 and 389 showed the healing effects of the extracts. Methanol extract showed a high healing effect when compared to the chloroform extract. This healing effect might be due to the presence of phenolic in high content. Past studies have been done on Wheat grass in relation to their total phenolics and flavonoids. At the same phenolics were used in studying against the RBC membrane damage. Our study suggests that the wheat grass can be used as a better and novel therapeutic agent in healing the RBC membrane damage induced by free radicals.
Manish Kumar Mourya,
Hamzah basil Mohammed,
Healing Effects of Wheat Grass (Triticum aestivum L) Extracts on RBC Membrane Damage, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: Recent Developments in Health Care through Plants and Microbes.
Vol. 2, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 22-27.
B Halliwell. 1996. Oxidative stress, nutrition and health. Experimental strategies for optimization of nutritional antioxidant intake in humans. Free Radical Res; 25: 57-74.
T F Slater, K H Cheeseman, D Armstrong, R S Sohal, R G Cutler. 1984. Free radicals, lipid peroxidation and cancer. New York: Raven Press,;pp. 293-305.
H Einsele, MR Clemens, H Remmer. 1985 Effect of ascorbate on red blood cell lipid peroxidation. Free Radical Res Commun, 1: 63-7.
MCM Vissers, A Stern, F Kuypers, J V D Berg, CC Winterbourn. 1994Membrane changes associated with lysis of red blood cells by hypochlorous acid. Free Radical Biol Med, 16: 703-12.
T Koga, K Moro, J Terao. 1998. Protective effect of a vitamin E analog, phosphatidylchromanol, against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Lipids; 33: 589-95.
E Niki, E Komur, M Takahashi, S Urano, E Ito, K Terao.1988. Oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes and its inhibition by free radical scavengers. J Biol Chem; 263: 19809-14.
F Testa, J Nuti, Hayek, et al., 2012. “Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and autism spectrum disorders,” The American Society For Neurochemistry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 223–229.
DE Discher, P Carl. 2001-2006. Cell Bio let New insights into red cell network structure, elasticity, and spectrin unfolding a new fold review, A J Physiol, 593-606.
J. Baio. 2012. “Prevalence of Autism spectrum disorders: autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 1–19.
P. Favero, M. Leonart, A. Nascimento. 2013. Electroforese de proteínas de membrane eritrocitária no diagnóstico de doença haemolítica por defeito de membrana. Revista Brasileira de Análises Clínica 35, 45–47.
G Wagner, D Chiu, M Yee, B Lubin. 1986. Red cell vesiculation – a common membrane physiological event. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 108, 315–324.
A Arora, TM Byrem, MG Nair, GM Strasburg. 2000. Modulation of liposomal membrane fluidity by flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Arch Biochem Biophys 373:102–109.
B. Bukowska, J. Michałowicz, A. Krokosz, P. Sicińska, 2007. Comparison of the effect of phenol and its derivatives on protein and free radical formation in human erythrocytes (in vitro). Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 39, 238.
M.Y. cimen. 2008. “free redical metabolism in human erythrocytes,” Clin. Chim. Acta, vol .30, no-1-2.
M. Ferrali, C. Signorini, Caciotti, B., Sugherini, L., Ciccoli, L., Giachetti, D., Comporti, M. 1997. Protection against oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane by the ﬂavonoid quercetin and its relation to iron chelating activity. FEBS Letters 416, 123–129.
G. Bar-Sela, et al. 2007. "Wheat grass juice may improve hematological toxicity related to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a pilot study," Nutrition and Cancer, 58(1): 43-8.
K G Harding, H L Morris, G K Patel. 2002. Science, medicine and the future: healing chronic wounds. BMJ 324: 160-163.
H L Jacob, I Burhan, A Scarpellini, A Thomas, A Imberty, R Romain , T Johnson, A Gutierrez, And E A. M. Verderio. 2012. Identification of a heparin binding site that regulates cell adhesion to fibronectin transglutaminase-2 matrix; J Biol Chem. May 25, 287(22): 18005–18017.
S D Kulkarni, J C Tilak, R Acharya, N S Rajurkar, TPA Devasagayam, AVR Reddy. 2006. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) as a function of growth under different conditions. Phytother Res; 20: 218-27.
AAL Ordonez, JD Gomez, MA Vattuone, MI Isla. 2006. Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq). Food Chem; 97:452–458.
BE Omoruyi, G Bradley, AJ Afolayan. 2012. Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) bolus leaf used for the management of common infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Eastern Cape Province. Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 12(215):2-9.
V. L. Singleton and J A. Rossi. 1965. Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid ReagentsAm. J. Enol. Vitic. 16:144-158.
M Ferrali, C Signorini, B. Caciotti, L. Sugherini, L. Ciccoli, D Giachetti. and M. Comporti. 1997. Protection against oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane by the flavonoid quercetin and its relation to iron chelating activity. FEBS Lett 416, 123–129.
TCP Dinis, VMC Madeira, MLM Almeida. 1994. Action of phenolic derivates (acetoaminophen, salycilate and 5-aminosalycilate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315: 161-169.
G Poli. 1993. Free Radicals: From Basic Science to Medicine. Basel: Birkhauser. pp. 47–65.pp. 365–73.pp. 389–98.