Maternal Mortality in Nigeria: Trend, Triggers and Implications for Sustainable Development
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 135-143
Received: Oct. 23, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 20, 2019;
Published: Sep. 3, 2020
Views 30 Downloads 24
Abayomi Muftau Adesina, Department of Economics, School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Adegboyega Adegboye, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, College of Natural Science, Achievers University, Owo, Nigeria
Sustainable development has been a major aspiration of many developing countries, including Nigeria. However, the incidence of maternal mortality in the country has elicited serious concerns from all stake holders. This paper attempts to examine the incidence of maternal mortality in Nigeria, its trend and triggers with a view to appraising its implications for sustainable development. The study utilized secondary data obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2015. The research indicates the existence of high maternal mortality in Nigeria, in spite of various government interventions in the health sector. The reasons ascribed for this situation include: poor health management; poverty, unemployment, poor access to health facilities, high illiteracy level and ignorance especially among rural dwellers, pathological causes, corruption, poor gender relations, and dearth of project management expertise. Implications for sustainable development revealed by the study include: Late/low school enrollment, absence of maternal care, increased poverty, waste of the nation’s non-renewable resources, productivity impairment and slowed Gross Domestic Product growth rate. The paper therefore recommends that the government should strongly fight corruption and enforce the nine years of universal basic education, ensure comprehensive health management, craft an inclusive theory of consumption, intensify public sensitization especially for rural dwellers and hone the project management skills of health workers. Finally, government needs to intensify campaign for gender equality in order to improve female-confidence and voice in the society while also making health facilities and processes more public-friendly with a view to facilitating access to pre- and post-natal services.
Abayomi Muftau Adesina,
Maternal Mortality in Nigeria: Trend, Triggers and Implications for Sustainable Development, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 8, No. 5,
2020, pp. 135-143.
Abayomi, M. A. and Omoyeni, J. A. (2015). The Growing Incidence of Poverty in Nigeria: Triggers, Consequences and Turnaround Strategies. Journal of Educational Research in Natural and Social Sciences (JERNASS). Vol. 1, No. 1.
Agrawal, S. and Agrawal, J. C. (1996). Second Historical Survey of Women’s Education in India, 1988 – 1994: Present Status, Perspective Plan, Statistical Indicators with a Global View. Concept Publishing Company.
Akani, C. (2015). Right Birth, Our Birthright: A Reflection to Act Right. 116th Inaugural Lecture of the University of Port Harcourt presented in Choba. Rivers State on Thursday, 29th January. www.preiutiesng.com.
Amankwah, A. A. (2009). Ghana: MDGs Coalition Strive to Improve Maternal Health. This Day. allafrica.com. Retrieved on 07/04/2010.
Australian Public Service Commission (2007). Tackling Wicked Problems: A Public Policy Perspective. Australian Public Service Commission. 25th October.
Guerrier, G., Oluyide, B., Keramarou, M., & Grais, R. (2013). High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 495-499.
Hanson, D. (2010). Data on Maternal Mortality: Historical information compiled for 14 countries (up to 200 years).
Igberase, G. O., & Ebeigbe, P. N. (2007). Maternal mortality in a rural referral hospital in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol, 27 (3), 275-278.
IMF. (2006). World Economic Outlook, April 2006 World Economic and Financial Surveys. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Lindros A, Lukkainen A (2004). Antenatal care and maternal mortality in Nigeria. Public Health Programme - exchange to Nigeria. www.antenatal-Nigeria.pdf Retrieved on 07/04/2010.
Marchie CL, Ayanwu FC (2009). Relative Contributions of Socio-Cultural Variables to The Prediction of Maternal Mortality in Edo South Senatorial District, Nigeria. Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 13 (2): 109-115.
Medical World (2015). Nigeria’s Health Budget: 2016 Appropriation Still Below WHO Recommendation. Posted on 31st December, 2015 and retrieved from www.medicalworldnigeria.com.
National Bureau of Statistics, NBS (2012). Nigeria Poverty Profile 2010. Abuja. NBS. Available at http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/uploads/latest.
National Bureau of Statistics, NBS (2013). National Baseline Youth Survey Report for 2012.
Okonofua, F., Okpokunu, E., Aigbogun, O., Nwandu, C., Mokwenye, C., Kanguru, L., & Hussein, J. (2012). Assessment of infection control practices in maternity units in Southern Nigeria. Interrnational Journal for Quality in Health Care, 1-7.
Pearce, D. W., Swanson, T., Brown K., and Perrings C. (1993). Economics and the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity, Global Environment Facility, World Bank, Washington DC.
Pearce and Warford (1993). World Without End: Economics, Environment and Sustainable Development. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prata N, Gessessew A, Abaha AK, Holston M, Potts M (2008). Prevention of Post Partum Haemorrhage: Option for Home Births in Rural Ethiopia. Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 13 (2): 87-95.
Raingruber, B. (2014). Contemporary Health Promotion in Nursing Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Repetto, R. (1986). World Enough and Time: Successful Strategies for Resource Management, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Rittel, H. W. J. and Webber, M. M. (1973). “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”. Policy Sciences 4: 155-169. Doi: 10.1007/bf01405730. Retrieved 25th April, 2013.
Udofia I, Okonofua F (2008). Preventing Primary Post Partum Hemorrhage in Unskilled Births in Africa. Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 12 (1): 7-9.
UNESCO Institute of Statistics [UIS] (2015). List of Countries by Literacy Rate. Retrieved from https//en.m.wikipedia.org/ on 27th February, 2016.
Van marle, K. (2006). Sex, Gender, becoming: Post-Apartheid Reflections. Pulp.
Weeks, A. (2007). Maternal mortality: it’s time to get political. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 114, 125-126.
WHO (1994). International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
WHO (2016). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. Retrieved from www.who.int/gho/maternal and reproductive health on 24th February, 2016.
WHO. (2012). Maternal Mortality. WHO, Geneva.
WHO (2007). Maternal mortality in 2005. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
WHO (2004). Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation.
World Commission on Environment and Development [Brundtland Commission] (1987). Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from Wikipedia https//en.m.wikipedia.org on 24th February, 2016.