Please enter verification code
Confirm
Archive
Special Issues
Flexibility Augmented by Heat-applied Stretching Exercise Compared to Exercise Without Additional External Heat
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages: 69-75
Received: Oct. 18, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 30, 2020; Published: Aug. 25, 2020
Views 148      Downloads 24
Author
Abraham Derbachew, Department of Sport Science, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Introduction: the goal of stretching can vary; such diversify aims as enhancing performance, preventing injury and recovering from following injury. Objective: The aim of study is to examine 80 male football project players to determine; if heat applied stretching would better improvement in flexibility or not. Method: To achieve the intended objective randomized experimental design was implemented. Players who have been volunteered and fulfilled the research inclusion criteria are recruited and randomly grouped in to four equal sections. The first group was control group and did not perform any treatment, whereas the rest 3 experimental groups followed six weeks intervention program (3 days per week). SEG (Stretching Exercise Group only) engaged in stretching exercises only, on the other hand the remaining groups HP=Heat Packs Group and CP=Cold Packs Group undertaking thermal interventions (hot and cold packs respectively) for 20 minutes before performing the stretching exercise. Cold exposure was examined to see if it would have the opposite effect. On the study sit and reach test used as a standard measuring tool. For instance to inspect actual changes in groups, and also paired t-test was used to compare mean value, to this end the difference between groups was tested dependent t-test. The analysis conducted by SPSS -V 25 and in commenting on the analysis results, significance and rated at p< .05 level. Result: Except Control Group, all experimental groups produced significant improvement in flexibility; however interventions produced different results, the mean Pre/Post differences and (p<.05) were .81 (p<.03) for Group two, 2.2 (p<.01) for Group three and .5.9 (p<.04) for Group four. When compared with groups, the Group which received heat packs prior to stretching obtained the greatest improvement in flexibility, which resulted in applied heat. In line to the result the investigator noticed heat applied stretching exercise is the most effective for promoting flexibility and cold exposure may limit flexibility improvement, but it wasn’t seen having the opposite effect. All in all these finding seem to support and endorse the use of heat as an adjunct with stretching techniques in improving flexibility.
Keywords
Flexibility, Stretching, Exercise, Heat
To cite this article
Abraham Derbachew, Flexibility Augmented by Heat-applied Stretching Exercise Compared to Exercise Without Additional External Heat, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 69-75. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20200804.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Brukner, P., & Khan, K. M. (2002). Clinical sports medicine. Sydney: McGraw-Hill. Chan, A. K., Myrer, J. W., Measom, G. J., & Draper, D. O. (1998). Temperature changesin human patellar tendon in response to therapeutic ultrasound. Journal of Athletic Training, 33 (2), 130e135.
[2]
Nakano, J., et al., The effect of heat applied with stretch to increase range of motion: A systematic review, Physical Therapy in Sport (2012), doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2011.11.003.
[3]
Burke DG, Holt LE, Rasmussen R, MacKinnon NC, Vossen JF, Pelham TW. Effects of hot or cold water immersion and modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility exercise on hamstring length. J Athl Train 2001; 36: 16-9.
[4]
Chris M. Bleakley, Joseph T. Costello (2013). Do Thermal Agents Affect Range of Movement and Mechanical. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 159-161.
[5]
Claudia A K, Carrie R R, Michael E C, Martha A, Susan J. H, (2001). Effect of Superficial Heat, Deep Heat, and Active Exercise Warm-up on the Extensibility of the Plantar Flexors. american Physical Therapy Association, 1206–1214.
[6]
Cosgray NA, Lawrance SE, Mestrich JD, Martin SE, Whalen RL. Effect of heat modalities on hamstring length: a comparison of pneumatherm, moist heat pack, and a control. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004; 34: 377-84.
[7]
Jerrold S. P, Michael L, and Haneul L, (2013). Effect of heat and cold on tendon flexibility and force to flex the human knee. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 661–667 doi: 10.12659/MSM.889145.
[8]
Hartig, D. E., & Henderson, J. M. (1999). Increasing hamstring flexibility decrease slower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 27 (2), 173e176.
[9]
Herbert, R. D., & Gabriel, M. (2002). Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 325 (7362), 468e470.
[10]
McNeal JR and Sands WA. Stretching for performance enhancement. Curr Sports Med Rep 5: 141–146, 2006.
[11]
Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sports Med 2004; 32: 251-61).
[12]
Jarosch R. The Different Muscle-Energetics during Shortening and Stretch. Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12 (5): 2891–900. [PMC free article] [PubMed].
[13]
Voss DE, Ionta MK, Myers BJ. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Patterns and Techniques. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Harper & Row Publishers, 1985: 304.
[14]
Rowell LB: Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol Rev, 1974; 54 (1): 75–159.
[15]
Slivka D et al: Local heat application enhances glycogenesis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2012; 37 (2): 247–51.
[16]
Woods K, Bishop P, Jones E. Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Med 2007; 37: 1089-99.
[17]
Sapega AA, Quedenfeld TC, Moyer RA, Butler RA. Biophysical factors in range of motion exercises. The Physician & Sports medicine. 1981; 9: 57–65.
[18]
Holt LE, Travis TM, Okita T. Comparative study of three stretching techniques. Percept Mot Skills. 1970; 31: 611–616. Google Scholar Cross ref PubMed.
[19]
Wallin D, Ekblom B, Grahn R, Nordenborg T. Improvement of muscle flexibility: a comparison between two techniques. Am J Sports Med. 1985; 13: 263–268.
[20]
De Vries H. Evaluation of static stretching procedures for improvement of flexibility. Res Q. 1962; 33: 222–229.
[21]
Webb P: Temperatures of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle and core in resting men in cold, comfortable and hot conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1992; 64 (5): 471–76.
[22]
Pasanen K, et al. Effect of a neuromuscular warm-up programme on muscle power, balance, speed and agility: a randomised controlled study. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43 (13): 1073–78. [PubMed].
[23]
Taylor DC, Dalton JD Jr, Seaber AV, Garrett WE Jr. Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon units: the biomechanical effects of stretching. Am J Sports Med. 1990; 18: 300–309. Google Scholar Cross ref PubMed.
[24]
Moore MA, Hutton RS. Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980; 12: 322–329. Google Scholar Crossref PubMed.
[25]
Wessling KC, DeVane DA, Hylton CR. Effects of static stretch versus static stretch and ultrasound combined on triceps surae muscle extensibility in healthy women. Phys Ther. 1987; 67: 674–679. Google Scholar Pub Med.
[26]
Kettunen JA et al: Cumulative incidence of shoulder region tendon injuries in male former elite athletes. Int J Sports Med, 2011; 32 (6): 451–54.
[27]
LaBella CR, et al. Effect of neuromuscular warm-up on injuries in female soccer and basketball athletes in urban public high schools: cluster randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011; 165 (11): 1033–40. [PubMed].
[28]
Knight CA, Rutledge CR, Cox ME, Acosta M, Hall SJ. Effect of superficial heat, deep heat, and active exercise warm-up on the extensibility of the plantar flexors. Phys Ther 2001; 81: 1206-14.
[29]
Warren CG, Lehmann JF, Koblanski JN. Elongation of rat tail tendon: effect of load and temperature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1971; 52: 465–474. Google Scholar PubMed.
[30]
Clarke RS, Hellon RF, Lind AR: The duration of sustained contractions of the human forearm at different muscle temperatures. J Physiol, 1958; 143 (3): 454–73.
[31]
Astrid J, Jiri Dvořák; (2015). Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, 49: (9).
[32]
Mazumdar, I., 2012. Comparative Relationship of Selected Physical Fitness Variables to Playing Ability.
[33]
Wells., K. F. and E. F. Dillon., 1952. The sit and reach. a test of back and leg flexibility. Research Quarterly, 23.115-118.
[34]
Hecox B, Mehreteab TA, Weisberg J, eds. Physical Agents: A Comprehensive Guide for Physical Therapists. East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange, 1994.
[35]
Henricson A, Fredriksson K, Persson I, et al. The effect of heat and stretching on the range of hip motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1984; 6: 110–115. Google Scholar Crossref Pub Med.
[36]
Aijaz Y, Chaudhary P, Quddus N. Ultrasound and prolonged long duration stretching increase triceps surae muscle extensibility more than identical stretching alone. Ind J Physiother Occup Ther 2007; 1: 11-8.
[37]
Akbari A, Moodi H, Moein AA, Nazok R. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound and duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group on the passive knee extension. J Med Sci 2006; 6: 968-73.
[38]
Brucker JB, Knight KL, Rubley MD, Draper DO. An 18-day stretching regimen, with or without pulsed, shortwave diathermy, and ankle dorsiflexion after 3 weeks. J Athl Train 2005; 40: 276-80.
[39]
Draper DO, Anderson C, Schulthies SS, Ricard MD. Immediate and residual changes in dorsiflexion range of motion using an ultrasound heat and stretch routine. J Athl Train 1998; 33: 141-4.
[40]
Draper DO, Castro JL, Feland B, Schulthies S, Eggett D. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004; 34: 13-20.
[41]
Draper DO, Miner L, Knight KL, Ricard MD. The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. J Athl Train 2002; 37: 37-42.
[42]
Lentell G, Hetherington T, Eagan J, Morgan M. The use of thermal agents to influence the effectiveness of a low-load prolonged stretch. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992; 16: 200-7.
[43]
Peres SE, Draper DO, Knight KL, Ricard MD. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsi- flexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. J Athl Train 2002; 37: 43-50.
[44]
Rancour JL, Terry ME, Holmes C, Cipriani DJ. Superficial precooling on a 4-week static stretching regimen. Sports Health Multidisc Appr 2010; 2: 433-6.
[45]
Warren CG, Lehmann JF, Koblanski JN. Heat and stretch procedures: an evaluation using rat tail tendon. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1976; 57: 122–126. Google Scholar PubMed.
[46]
Shrier I. Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med 2004; 14: 267-273.
[47]
Funk D, Swank A, Adams KJ, Treolo D. Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15: 123-6.
[48]
Sawyer PC, Uhl TL, Mattacola CG, Johnson DL, Yates JW. Effects of moist heat on hamstring flexibility and muscle temperature. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 17: 285-90 © 2019 Abraham Derbachew, Arba Minch University, Sport Science Department.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186