Both Chargaff Second Parity Rule and the Strand Symmetry Rule Are Imprecise
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages: 1-6
Received: Mar. 7, 2018;
Published: Mar. 9, 2018
Views 2080 Downloads 96
Zhiyu Chen, Peiyou Education School, Shanghai, China
Follow on us
In order to check Chargaff Second Parity Rule, we find the strands are asymmetric in human DNA, this breaks the strand symmetry rule. We calculate the ratio between oligonucleotide ATGC and oligonucleotide CGTA, and we compare the sample sequence average ratio ATGC/CGTA and the complementary sequence average ratio ATGC/CGTA. we find evolution degree more bigger, then the strand symmetry deviation will be more bigger. sequence and its complementary strand sequence obviously have two different characters, include physical property, chemical property and biological property. It is very important, base on this asymmetry, we can find some new and special theories in biology to explain how chromosome communicates and works in the future. we also find, both leukemia and breast cancer are weakening the DNA’s asymmetry degree. Here need more research and check, maybe we can find an easy diagnosing method to leukemia and breast cancer, if this result here is right at last, it will benefit to the world.
ATGC/CGTA, Strand Asymmetry, Complementary Sequence, Evolutionary Forces
To cite this article
Both Chargaff Second Parity Rule and the Strand Symmetry Rule Are Imprecise, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 1-6.
Rudner, R; Karkas, JD; Chargaff, E (1967). "Separation of B. Subtilis DNA into complementary strands. 3. Direct analysis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 60 (3).
Chargaff E, Lipshitz R, Green C (1952). "Composition of the deoxypentose nucleic acids of four genera of sea-urchin". J Biol Chem. 195 (1): 155-160.
Baisnée PF, Hampson S, Baldi P: Why are complementary DNA strands symmetric?. Bioinformatics. 2002.
Prabhu VV: Symmetry observations in long nucleotide sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993, 21: 2797-2900. 10.1093/nar/21.12.2797.
Forsdyke DR. 1995a. Relative roles of primary sequence and (G+C)% in determining the hierarchy of frequencies of complementary trinucleotide pairs in DNAs of different species. J. Mol. Evol. 41:573-591.
Elson D, Chargaff E (1952). "On the deoxyribonucleic acid content of sea urchin gametes". Experientia. 143–145. doi:10.1007/BF02170221. PMID 14945441.
Rudner, R; Karkas, JD; Chargaff, E (1968). "Separation of B. Subtilis DNA into complementary strands. 3. Direct analysis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 60 (3): 921–2. doi: 10.1073/pnas.60.3.921. PMC 225140? Freely accessible. PMID 4970114.
Perez, J.-C. (September 2010). "Codon populations in single-stranded whole human genome DNA are fractal and fine-tuned by the Golden Ratio 1.618". Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Science. 2 (3): 228–240. doi: 10.1007/s12539-010-0022-0.
Pray, Leslie (2008). "Discovery of DNA structure and function: Watson and Crick". Nature Education. 1 (1): 100. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
Kosaka, N; Yoshioka, Y; Hagiwara, K; Tominaga, N; Katsuda, T; Ochiya, T (Sep 5, 2013). "Trash or Treasure: extracellular microRNAs and cell-to-cell communication". Frontiers in Genetics. 4: 173. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00173. PMC 3763217 Freely accessible. PMID 24046777.