Genetic Diversity of Nigella sativa from Different Geographies Using RAPD Markers
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 175-180
Received: Oct. 8, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 10, 2016; Published: Dec. 12, 2016
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Sudhir S. P., Department of Life Science, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, India
Alagappan Kumarappan, Department of Microbiology, Marine Biology, and Virology, University of Modern Sciences, Dubai, UAE
Jainendra Malakar, Department of Science, Kuvempu University, Shimoga, India
H. N. Verma, Department of Life Science, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, India
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Nigella sativa is one of the important commercial medicinal herbs. It is extensively used in the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It is used in various medicinal, food and cosmetic preparations. It is proved to be anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antioxidant (free radical scavenger), anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agent. The medicinal value of Nigella sativa seed is linked to its rich chemical contents, which is significantly influenced by geographical location, environmental conditions, and genetic makeup. In this study, the genetic diversity of Nigella sativa plant using RAPD markers was investigated. The samples were collected from various geographies like India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Oman, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. Plant DNA was extracted using Norgen's Plant/Fungi DNA Isolation Kit. 20 different Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to study the polymorphism in amplified bands among the 8 DNA samples of Nigella sativa from different geographies. Out of 20 RAPD primer used, 8 RAPD primers had provided amplification during PCR and scorable bands on 1.5 % agarose gel electrophoresis. Common DNA bands or fragments present in all accessions were not included in data as they are of a non-informative type. Only unambiguous and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. The polymorphic bands were scored as 1 (as present) and 0 (as absent). Using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) and similarity coefficients, the relationships among the accessions were established. Based on the UPGMA method, the dendrogram divided the eight accessions into 4 clusters. Cluster 1 consisted of accessions S1 (India) and S2 (Pakistan) with a minute diversity of 0.101. Cluster 2 consisted of accessions S4 (Saudi Arabia), S6 (Syria) and S8 (Tunisia) along with S7 (Turkey) accession with minute genetic deviation. Cluster 3 consisted of accession S3 (Egypt). Cluster 4 consisted of accession S5 (Oman). Accession S3 (Egypt) and S5 (Oman) shown high genetic variations from other accession under study. The dendrogram indicated that there is significant impact of geographies on genetic diversity of Nigella sativa accession tested. This genetic diversity enables the Nigella sativa to adapt itself to varied environmental conditions in these geographies. The information on genetic diversity can further be linked to active medicinal compounds of the Nigella sativa seed. This could be very useful for the selection of germplasm resource for breeding and commercial sourcing.
Nigella Sativa, Kalongi, Genetic Diversity, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers
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Sudhir S. P., Alagappan Kumarappan, Jainendra Malakar, H. N. Verma, Genetic Diversity of Nigella sativa from Different Geographies Using RAPD Markers, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 175-180. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20160406.15
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