Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemical Evaluation of Buchholzia coriacea Seed (Wonderful Kola)
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 106-112
Received: Jul. 20, 2016; Accepted: Aug. 2, 2016; Published: Oct. 18, 2016
Views 3339      Downloads 92
Authors
Umeokoli Blessing Ogechukwu, Department of Pharmaceutical, and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Abba Chika, Department of Pharmaceutical, and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Ezeh Peter, Department of Pharmaceutical, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Ajaghaku Daniel, Department of Pharmacology, and Toxicology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Onyegbule Felix Afamefule, Department of Pharmaceutical, and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This study investigated the phytochemical content, proximate analysis, acute toxicity test, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effect of Buchholzia coriacea (wonderful kola) seed fractions using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of B. coriacea seeds against Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was determined using the agar well diffusion method. The proximate composition shows that freshly dried B. coriacea seeds consist of 13% moisture, 88.19% total solid, 0.45% crude fat, 3.92% ash, 1.96% nitrogen, 12.8% protein, 69.8% carbohydrate and 3.5% crude fibre. The acute toxicity study showed that the seed is safe; as no death was recorded. In the assay for anti-inflammatory activity, the results showed the aqueous extract to be the most active fractions. The preliminary antimicrobial evaluation, revealed that at the concentrations analysed (6.25-100 mg/mL), the inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) produced by the aqueous extracts against the test isolates ranged from 0-18 mm; the methanol extract recorded IZDs that ranged from 0-15 mm; and the n-hexane extract recorded IZDs that ranged from 0-7 mm. The antimicrobial results of the extracts of B. coriacea showed that the aqueous extract recorded the best antibacterial activity, while the methanol extract showed the best antifungal activity. It can be concluded that the aqueous extract recorded more pharmacological activities than the methanol and n-hexane extracts of B. coriacea seeds and this confirms the common use of aqueous decoctions of this plant seeds in South-Eastern Nigeria traditional medicine practice. Analysis of the seed oil, revealed the significant presence of Estra-1, 3, 5 [10] -trien-17ß-ol (35.26%), Oleic acid (6.49%), 1-(+)-Ascorbic acid-2,6-dihexadecanoate (5.98%), Docosanoic acid (2.85%) with other palmitic acid derivatives.
Keywords
Buchholzia Coriacea, Antimicrobial, Methanolic Extracts, Aqueous Extracts, Anti-Inflammatory, Nigeria
To cite this article
Umeokoli Blessing Ogechukwu, Abba Chika, Ezeh Peter, Ajaghaku Daniel, Onyegbule Felix Afamefule, Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemical Evaluation of Buchholzia coriacea Seed (Wonderful Kola), American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 106-112. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20160405.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
World Health Organization. Diabetes Mellitus, Fact sheet number 138 and 236: Geneva; 1999.
[2]
World Health Organization 1991. Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[3]
Burkill, HM. The useful plants of West tropical Africa, (families M-R), vil 42nd Ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (1985).
[4]
Quattrochi-Tembeto F. L, CRC world Dictionary of Plant names common names scientific names, Eponyms, synonyms and entomology CRC press pp 337-368.
[5]
Irvine JR. Woody plant of Ghana, 2nd ed. London: Oxford University press; 1961. p. 5.
[6]
Pandey, M., Abidi, AB, Singh, S., Singh, R. P. Nutritional evaluation of Leafy Vegetable Paratha J. Hum. Ecol. (2006), 19 (2): 155-156.
[7]
Aruoma OL, Methodological consideration for characterizing potential anti-oxidants actions of bioactive components in plant foods. Mutat Res. (2003) 523 (524) 9-20.
[8]
Soetan, K. O and Oyewole, O. E. 2009. African Journal of food science. (2007) 3 (9): 223-232.
[9]
Morris, RN. Plant for a future, charitable publishers Ltd. England, (2014) pp. 20-25.
[10]
Treas GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy 12th ed. Bailiere Tindal, London; 1983, p. 343-383.
[11]
Harbone. J. B (1973) Phytochemical Methods, Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 49-188.
[12]
Kokate, C K., (1994); Practical Pharmacognosy 4th edition, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 177-180.
[13]
Official methods of analysis. 15th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA. AOAC (2000).
[14]
Onwuka G. I. Food analysis and instrumentation; they and practice. Naphthalic prints, Surlere, Lagos, Nigeria. 2005 219-230.
[15]
Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. Antibiotic assay by agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biol. Med. Exp. (1990) 15: 113-115.
[16]
Derell, C., Guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals Institute of laboratory Annual Resources Natural Academy Press, Washington DC, USA (1996).
[17]
Miller LC, Tainter MC. Estimation of the LD50 and its errors by means of Logarithmic probit graph paper. Proc. Soc. Exp Biol. Med. 1944; 57: 261-264 http//dxdoi.org/10.3181/00379727-57-14776.
[18]
Okoye, F. B. C and Osadebe O Patience. Studies on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions of Alchornea floribunda leaves. Asian pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2009). 2 (3): 7-14.
[19]
Perez GRM Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisaefolia and Rheospathacae. Phytomedicine 1996; 3 (2) 163-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113 (96) 80030-4.
[20]
Owolabi AO, Ndidi US, James BD, Amune FA. Proximate, Antinutrient and Mineral composition of Five varieties of cowpea, Vigna ungulate, Commonly consumed in samara community, Zaria Nigeria. Asian Journal of Food Science and Technology 2012 4 (2): 70-72.
[21]
Mbata TI, Duru CM and Onwumelu HA. Antibacterial activity of crude seed extracts of Buchholzia coriacea E. on some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Developmental Biology and Tissue Engineering. (2009) 1 (1): 001-005.
[22]
Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Amadi BA and Nwachukwu IO Comparative Evaluation of Phytoconstituents, Antibacterial Activities and Proximate Contents of Fresh, Oven Dried Uncooked and Cooked Samples of Buchholzia coriacea Seed and Their Effects on Hepatocellular Integrity. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. (2014) 3 (6): PP. 41-49.
[23]
Nweze, NE, Anene, BM, Asuzu, IU. Investigation of the Antitrypanosomal activity of Buchholzia coriacea seed extract against a field strain of trypanosoma congolense. Afr J Tradition complement Altern. Med. (2011) 8 (s): 175-180 175.
[24]
Erhirhie EO, Ben-Azu B, Moke G, Emuesiri CP and Omonjia IA. Ethnopharmacological review of Buchholzia Coriacea (Wornderful Kola). International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. (2015) 4 (1): 149-155.
[25]
Bruice, P.Y. Organic Chemistry, Second Edition. Prentice Hall, upper Saddle River, New Jersey, (1998) 1055.
[26]
Russel, A.D., Mechanisms of bacterial resistance of non-antibiotics: Food additives and Food Pharmaceutical preservatives. Journal of Applied Bacteriol.(1991) 71:191-201.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186